World Pac Paper:  Paper / Packaging Glossary






An ISO 'A' series paper size – 841×1189 mm or 33.11×46.81 inches or 2384 x 3370 points (width x height)




An ISO 'A' series paper size – 594×841 mm or 23.39×33.11 inches or 1684 x 2384 points (width x height)




An ISO 'A' series paper size – 420×594 mm or 16.54×23.39 inches or 1190 x 1684 points (width x height)




An ISO 'A' series paper size – 297×420 mm or 11.69×16.54 inches or 842 x 1190 points (width x height)




A common ISO 'A' series size of about 8-¼ by 11-¾ inches or 210×297 mm or 595×842 points. Used as the standard cut-paper size outside of the United States. The US equivalent is a letter size (8.5 x 11 inch) paper.




An ISO 'A' series paper size – 148×210 mm or 5.83×8.27 inches or 420 x 595 points (width x height)




An ISO 'A' series paper size – 105×148 mm or 4.13×5.83 inches or 298 x 420 points (width x height)




An ISO 'A' series paper size – 74x105mm or 2.91×4.13 inches or 209 x 298 points (width x height)




A plant commonly known as manila hemp.


Abrasion Resistance


A measure of paper's durability when subject to abrasive action.


Abrasive Paper


A type of paper that is coated on one or both sides with abrasive powder such as emery.




A property of paper causing it to scratch the surface it contacts.


Absolute Moisture


The absolute moisture of the air is the maximum amount of water vapor, the air can contain before the excess water is released as dew. Absolute moisture is measured in grams per cubic meter.


Absorbable Organic Halogen (AOX)


The amount of chlorine chemically bound to soluble organic matter in the effluent.




The ability of a paper or board to take up and retain liquids such as water or ink.




Absorbent Core


The principal fluid-holding component of disposable hygiene products. Absorbent cores usually contain a combination of fluff pulps and super-absorbent polymers.


Absorbent Papers


A grade of paper that takes up and retains liquids such as duplicator, blotting, filter papers, and toweling.


Accelerated Aging Test


A technique to estimate the permanence of paper by exposing it to simulated conditions of heat, moisture, and/ or chemicals.




Fibrous raw material accepted after cleaning and/or screening for further processing in papermaking.


Accordion Fold


A type of paper fold in which each fold runs in the opposite direction to the previous fold creating a pleated or accordion affect. Accordion folds are used on products such as catalogs, brochures, and maps.


Acetate Pulp


A high alpha cellulose pulp made especially to be dissolved in acetic acid, acetic anhydride, and sulfuric acid for making acetate rayon and acetate fibers.




Materials that are white, gray, and black with no color or hue.


Acid Free Paper


A type of paper, which does not contain any acidic substance that may affect acid sensitive material. Such papers are used for archival purposes.


Acid Migration


Transfer of acid from an acidic material to a less acidic or neutral-pH material. Acid can also migrate from adhesives, boards, protective tissues, paper covers, etc.


Acid Paper


A type of paper that has clay as the predominant filler and an acidic rosin-aluminum mixture as the internal sizing agent.


Acid Proof Paper


A type of paper that is not affected by acid physically or chemically.


Acid Size


Rosin size containing a large proportion of emulsified, free, or uncombined rosin.


Acidic Sizing


Internal sizing carried out in acidic pH range (0-7). Examples of acidic sizing are rosin and alum sizing.




Degree of acid found in a given paper measured by the pH factor. Paper can become acidic from the ingredients used in its manufacture, from the environment or both.


Actinic Rays


Light exposure that affects chemical changes in paper.


Activated Sludge Treatment


A biological method of cleaning up waste waters in three stages.


Active Alkali (AA)


Caustic soda (NaOH) and sodium sulfide (Na2S) expressed as Na2O in Kraft pulping liquor.


Actual Weight


Accurate weight of a given quantity of paper, which is different from the same paper's nominal weight.


Adding Machine Paper


Paper in roll form for use on adding and tabulating machines.


Additive Colors


In photographic reproduction, the primary colors of red, green, and blue which are mixed to form all other colors.




Fillers, dyes, sizing, and other chemicals added to pulp or coatings to impart the paper greater smoothness, color, opacity or other desirable attributes.




Refers to a process in which an air stream is blown onto paper sheets to separate the sheets as they are fed to the printing press.


Aerated Lagoon


A biological wastewater treatment method in which air (oxygen) fed into an aeration basin to reduce the BOD, COD, and AOX content of the effluent.




A single sheet of paper folded and gummed on three sides. Bears international preprinted air postage and the word “aerogramme" Intended for airmail correspondence to other countries.




American Forest & Paper Association, established in 1993, merged the activities of the American Paper Institute (API), National Forest Products Assn. (NFPA), and American Forest Council (AFC).


Against the Grain (Cross Direction)


Cutting, folding, or feeding paper at right angles to the grain or machine direction of the paper.




Irreversible deterioration on of paper properties over time. Sunlight and heat accelerate the loss of strength and brightness.




Equipment used to keep content of a tank or chest in motion and well mixed.


Air Blade Coating


Coating subjected to a thin jet of air. Air jet removes excess coating and smoothes surface of freshly coated paper. (Same as air knife coating)


Air Brush Coater


A coater, which uses the pressurized air to atomize the coating mixture and spray it on the paper.


Air Dry


Refers to any pulp and paper sample that has its moisture content in equilibrium with the surrounding atmospheric conditions. Conventionally, air-dry pulps are assumed to contain 10% moisture.


Air Drying


Method of drying the paper web on the paper machine by blowing air along the direction of the web.


Air Filter Paper


A type of paper used for filtration of air to remove suspended particles. (For example car air filter, vacuum bag etc.)


Air Knife Coater


A device that applies an excess coating to the paper surface and then removes the surplus by impinging a flat jet of air upon the fluid coating, leaving a smooth film on the paper.


Air Knife Coating


A method of coating using an air-knife which acts on the principle of a doctor blade and uses a thin, flat jet of air for removing the excess coating from a wet, freshly coated sheet of paper.


Airmail Paper


It is lightweight, high opacity, good quality writing / printing paper for airmail. Generally produced in white, off white or a pale blue for stationery purposes, usually below 40 g/m2 for reasons of postage costs.



Air Permeability


Also referred to as "porosity”. The ease with which pressurized air can flow through a sheet of paper. Typically measured by the Gurley or Sheffield porosity tests, which measure the volumetric flow of air through the paper thickness.


Air Pollution


The contamination of air around the plant due to the emission of gases, vapors, and particulate material in the atmosphere.




A compressed air tool that dispenses a fine midst of paint or ink; used in illustration and photo retouching.


Air-Dried Pulp


Pulp is described technically as air-dried when its moisture content is in equilibrium with the ambient atmosphere. Commercially, pulp is usually described as air-dried when the moisture content of the pulp is 10%.


Albion Press


A hand operated printing press made of iron.


Album Paper


A paper with an antique finish used for pages of photo albums.


Albumen Plate


Offset printing plate coated with light-sensitive albumen. It has a photosensitive coating.


Albumin Paper


A coated paper used in photography. The coating consists of albumin (egg whites) and ammonium chloride.




Micro-organic plant life that forms in paper mill water supplies.


Alkali Blue


Also called reflex blue. A pigment used in carbon black inks and varnishes to improve luster.


Alkali Proof


Paper that resists discoloration through contact with alkaline substances, such as soap. Glassine and waxed papers are used for such purposes.


Alkali Resistance


A tendency of paper not to be stained or discolored or to undergo a color change when brought in contact with alkaline products such as soap and adhesives.


Alkaline Paper


Paper manufactured under operating conditions with a pH greater than 7.0. Such papers have calcium carbonate as the filler and a synthetic material, compatible with the alkaline process, as a sizing agent. This process increases the longevity, bulk brightness, opacity, and printing characteristics of the paper without added cost.


Alkaline Papermaking


Paper manufactured under alkaline conditions, using additives, basic fillers like calcium carbonate and neutral size. The anti-aging properties in alkaline paper make it a choice for documents where permanence is required.


Alkaline Pulping


Pulping by alkaline solutions of sodium hydroxide, with or without sodium sulfide. Without sodium sulfide, it is called Soda process and with sodium sulfide, it is known as Kraft or Sulfate process.


Alkenyl Succinic Anhydride (ASA)


ASA is a sizing agent that increases paper's resistance to water penetration.


Alpha Pulp


A high alpha cellulose chemical pulp. It is also known as dissolving pulp.


Alternative Fiber


Alternative pulps to wood pulps used in papermaking.




A papermaking chemical used for precipitating rosin size onto pulp fibers to impart water-resistant properties to the paper. It is also known as paper maker’s alum or hydrated Aluminum Sulfate {Al2(SO4)3}.. It is responsible for introducing acid into the paper.


Aluminum Paper


Packaging paper made by mixing aluminum powder into the furnish or by coating or laminating the sheet with aluminum powder


Aluminum Foil Lamination


The combination of thin Aluminum foil with a paper backing used as a positive moisture barrier. Normal combination is Kraft backing with Aluminum foil laminated to the Kraft by means of asphalt, adhesive, or polyethylene.


Anaerobic Treatment


An effluent treatment system that uses microbes in the absence of oxygen to break down organic matter into methane, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen sulfide.




Oil based solvent (quick drying) used in the preparation process of dyes and inks.


Animal Size


Glue and gelatin extracted from animal hides and used as a papermaking size.


Animal Sized


A technique of paper making which hardens the surface by passing the paper through a bath of animal glue or gelatin.




Folded cards or envelopes that are generally used as stationery for social announcements.


Annual Renewable


Annually harvested crops such as hemp, esparto, bamboo, and cotton for use in papermaking.


Annual Vegetable Fiber Or Agricultural Residue Fiber


A source of fiber for pulp and papermaking such as wheat or rice straw or other fibrous by-products of agriculture.


Anti Rust Paper


Paper containing added substances, which give it the property of protecting the surfaces of ferrous metals against rusting.


Anti Tarnish Paper


Paper capable of protecting bright metallic surfaces against tarnishing.


Anti-Foam or Defoamer


Chemical additives used at wet-end to reduce or eliminate foam in white water.




The largest available handmade paper (53 x 31 inches).


Antique Paper


A printing paper with a rough finish but good printing surface, used in book printing for its high volume characteristics. Antique papers having good bulk and opacity with rough or matte surface.


Antique Finish


A bulky paper with a rough surface used for book and cover stock.


Antique Glazed


A paper, which has a high finish on one side and an antique finish on the other.


Apparent Density


Weight per unit volume of a sheet of paper obtained by dividing the basis weight by the caliper (thickness). Typical values of apparent density range from 0.75 (in loosely formed or less dense papers) to 1.20 for highly bonded sheets.


Approach Flow System


The stock flow system from fan pump to headbox slice.




Sheet of oiled cloth, leather, or rubber, which bridges the gap between the breast box and the moving wire on a Fourdrinier machine.


Archival Paper


A paper with long-standing qualities, acid free, lignin and sulfur-free, usually with good color retention. Most commonly used for historic documents. The archival paper must be long lasting without causing deterioration to itself or other materials it may come into contact with.


Art-Lined Envelope


A colored or patterned envelope that is lined with an extra fine paper.


Art Paper


Paper, normally wood-free, suitable for 4-colour printing, evenly coated with a fine clay compound, which creates a hard smooth surface on one or both sides


Artificial Parchment


Woodfree paper produced by fine and extended grinding of chemical pulps and mixture of special additives. It is used for wrapping meat.


Artist's Paper


A high-grade paper for drawing, made with a close weave.




The mineral residue left after burning a sample of paper to determine the percentage of filler it contains.


Ash Content


Ratio of mass of residue after combustion to mass of sample (pulp/paper) before combustion


Auto chrome Paper


Coated papers that are regarded as exceptional for multi-colored printing jobs.




The light blue color used in the nomenclature of "laid" and "wove" papers.


Azure Laid Paper


A laid paper usually blue in color having a good writing surface.







An ISO 'B' series paper size – 1000×1414 mm or 39.37×55.67 inches or 2835 x 4008 points (width x height)




An ISO 'B' series paper size – 707×1000 mm or 27.83×39.37 inches or 2004 x 2835 points (width x height)




An ISO 'B' series paper size – 500×707 mm or 19.69×27.83 inches or 1417 x 2004 points (width x height)




An ISO 'B' series paper size – 353×500 mm or 13.90×19.69 inches or 1001 x 1417 points (width x height)




An ISO 'B' series paper size – 250×353 mm or 9.84×13.90 inches or 709 x1001 points (width x height)




An ISO 'B' series paper size – 176×250 mm or 6.93×9.84 inches or 499 x 709 points (width x height)




An ISO 'B' series paper size – 125×176 mm or 4.92×6.93 inches or 354 x 499 points (width x height)




An ISO 'B' series paper size – 88×125 mm or 3.46×4.92 inches or 249 x 354 points (width x height)




An ISO 'B' series paper size – 62×88 mm or 2.44×3.46 inches or 176 x 249 points (width x height)




An ISO 'B' series paper size – 44×62 mm or 1.73×2.44 inches or 125 x 176 points (width x height)




An ISO 'B' series paper size – 31×44 mm or 1.22×1.73 inches or 88 x 125 points (width x height)




Marks left in a sheet of handmade paper, which has been dried over ropes.


Back Lining


The fixing of a material, either paper or cloth, to the back of a book before it is bound.




Print applied to both sides of a sheet of paper.


Backing Up


Printing the reverse side of a sheet already printed on one side.


Backlining Paper


Smooth finish, hard-sized paper varying in thickness from .009 to .011 of an inch.




The water, which passes through the forming fabric during paper formation. It contains dissolved or suspended matter such as fines, filler, etc.




The matter left over after extracting sugar from sugarcane.


Bagasse Pulp


Pulp obtained by chemical means from bagasse, the residue after extracting the juice from sugar cane.
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A term given to the procedure of drying coatings on paper surface.




Solid, compressed stack of pulp or paper sheets


Baling Plant


Part of a pulp mill where pulp sheets are converted into bales.




A grass yielding fibers used for papermaking.


Bamboo Pulp


Pulp obtained by chemical means from the stems of bamboo, a type of grass common to Asiatic countries.


Banding (Strapping)


Steel, plastic, fiber or other bands used to secure or protect rolls, sheets, loads, etc.


Bank Note Paper


An age-resistant paper, suitable for 4-colour printing, with watermark and falsification safeguards such as embedded metal strip. Often containing cotton fibers.


Bank Paper


A thin, uncoated paper used for making carbon copies.


Bark Steam Boiler


A boiler that burns mainly bark and other biofuels to produce steam.


Bark Waste


A main source of energy for pulp mills. The tree stem is debarked before chipping, the bark is recovered and burnt at a steam power plant.


Barn Doors


A device with two sets of thin metal doors (horizontal and vertical) placed before a light source to control the direction of light.


Barograph Paper


A thin paper coated on one side with a white wax, so that the needle of the barograph leaves a red line on a white ground.


Barrier Coat


A coating that is applied onto the non-printing side of paper to increase the opacity of the paper.


Baryta Paper


A coated stock (barium sulfate compound) used for text impressions on typesetting machines.


Base Board


Board intended for coating, laminating, etc.


Base Paper


Paper intended for further processing, e.g. Coating or lamination.


Base Stock


Paper that will be further processed as in coating or laminating.


Basic Size


Specific, standard sheet size from which the basis weight of a given grade is determined.


Basis Weight


Weight per 500 sheets of paper (one ream) of different paper grades weighed by their designated basic sheet size.


Bast Fibers


The long strong fibers from the inner bark of woody plants such as kozo, mitsumata, and gampi, also the outer layer of plants such as flax, hemp, and jute. The fiber is stripped and beaten in order to separate the fibers to make paper. The longer the fiber, the stronger the paper.


Batch Cooking


The method of cooking sulphate pulp in several batch digesters.




A method of treating fabric or paper with wax before dyeing, so the treated area does not pick up color.




Bleached Chemi-Thermo Mechanical Pulping.




The ease with which pulp can be beaten to achieve the desired properties




Large, longitudinally partitioned vat used to mix and mechanically work pulp with other ingredients such as additives and color to make paper.


Beater Additive


Starch, gum, or resin added to the papermaking stock in the beater to improve the utilitarian quality of the paper.


Beater Colored


A method of dyeing paper stock by adding coloring to the pulp in the beater.


Beater Roll


Cylinder or drum set with knives set against a bedplate to cut up rags in a beater trough.




Mechanical treatment of fibers to increase surface area, flexibility and promote bonding when dried.


Bending Chip


Paperboards using a recovered paper furnish to make folding cartons.


Bending Stiffness


Bending stiffness represents the capability of paper/board to resist the forces responsible for bending action. It also indicates the capability of paper to support its own weight while clamped in cantilever form.


Beta Radiography


Beta radiography is a technique using beta rays to measure thickness, moisture, density, and basis weight etc of paper.




An abbreviation for boldface, used to determine where boldface copy is to be used.


Bible Paper


A thin and strong paper (opaque) with high filler content, used for bibles and books. It is used in deluxe productions such as bibles, dictionaries and high-quality publicity productions.




Materials, which cause coating pigments to bond. The most frequently used binder is starch, but synthetic binders are also used to give improved performance.


Binder Migration


A coated paper defect where specks give a grainy or textured appearance to the coated surface.


Binder's Board


A heavy paperboard with a cloth covering that is used for hardback binding of books.




A chemical such as fungicide or a bactericide used in papermaking.




Organic materials such as food and paper that are broken down by microorganisms into simple compounds such as carbon dioxide, water, or minerals.




Energy generated from renewable biomass e.g. Plants and plant components




Renewable fuels for example from wood and bark.


Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD)


A measure of the amount of oxygen needed by aquatic organisms to break down degradable organic matter present in effluent. The higher the amount of decomposable material, the higher the BOD value.


Biological Waste Water Treatment


A method of cleaning up wastewater using living microorganisms such as bacteria.




Sludge formed in the aeration basin during biological waste water treatment or other biological treatment process


Bisulfate Pulp


Pulp made by the bisulfate cooking process using bisulfate cooking liquor.


Bisulphite Pulp, Sulphite Pulp


Chemical pulp produced by cooking chips in a solution of sulphur dioxide and ammonium-, calcium-, sodium- or magnesium-sulphite


Black Liquor


A mixture of spent cooking chemicals and dissolved wood material remaining after pulping. Black liquor is concentrated by evaporation, and burnt in the recovery boiler to regenerate the cooking chemicals and also produce energy for the mill.


Black Photo Paper


A black paper used to protect photosensitive materials.


Black Printer


Refers to the film portion of the color separation process that prints black; increases the contrast of neutral tones.




Defect associated with calendered paper where local areas of paper are apparently darker or greyer color due to the paper being too damp when passed through the calender.


Blade Coated Paper


Paper coated by a process in which the freshly applied coating film is smoothed and the excess removed by a thin, flexible metal blade.


Blade Coating


A widely used coating method in which excess coating color is scraped off by a blade


Blade Mark


Caused by a foreign piece of material caught under the coating blade, resulting in a scratch or streak that causes the paper surface to appear less opaque under a low angle light. Also known as a blade scratch or blade streak.


Blanc Fixe


Precipitated or artificial barium solution.


Blank Book Paper


Bond, writing, news manila writing. Grade depends upon the purpose for which the blank book will be used.




A surface material (rubber) covering the printing cylinder that transfers the ink from the plate to the paper.




A printing method in which a sheet of paper is passed through two blanket cylinders and is printed on both sides.




Heavyweight paperboard that range from 15 points to 48 points in thickness. Can be coated, uncoated, or colored.






A chlorine solution used to whiten pulp in papermaking.


Bleach Plant


Area of a pulp mill where pulp is bleached.


Bleached Pulp


Pulp that has been bleached by means of chemical additives to make it suitable for white paper production.




Removal or reduction of color in pulp to improve its brightness.




Ink that extends beyond the edges of a piece of paper is said to bleed off the sheet. In a printing project, usually a bleed will cost more to produce than a piece that does not bleed.


Blind Emboss


A design impression that is made without using inks or metal foils.


Blind Folio


A page that is counted in the overall counting of pages, but the number is not printed on the page.


Blind Image


A problem that arises in the lithography process when an image loses its ink receptivity and fails to print.




A defect on a paper surface often shaped like a human blister.


Blister Pack


This term describes a packaging system, which is a combination of board and plastics. The product is sealed to the board by a transparent plastics film. This system is often used for small products of difficult shapes and sizes.




The process of separation of the paper’s coating from its surface, which appears in the form of eruptions. Usually caused by high drying temperatures, high paper moisture, or low internal bond strength.





Illustrations or line art etched onto zinc or copper plates and used in letterpress printing.


Block Resistance


The resistance of coated papers to blocking. Refer Blocking.




The adhesion of one coated sheet to another, causing paper tears or particles of the coating to shed away from the paper surface.


Blotting Board


A high absorbency paperboard.


Blotting Paper


Bulky, absorbent, filler-free paper, which is mostly produced from pure cotton in the form of bleached linters and from chemical pulp. The advent of the ball-point pen has greatly reduced its demand.


Blow-Through Drying Process


A system using dry steam or hot air that blows through the wire. The blow-through drying process enabled tissue products to be dried in much less time.


Blue Angel


A German eco-label. To achieve this, paper has to contain 100% post-consumer waste.




The line of demarcation between paper and board is indeterminate. However, generally a thick, stiff paper or card usually made in several layers (or plies) with a substance normally varying from 150 to 500 g/m2, for certain grades even higher; widely used for packaging (e.g. folding cartons) and graphic applications.


Body Stock


Base stock, or coating raw stock for plain or decorated papers.




Product made from wastepaper or other inferior materials in an imitation of higher-quality grades.




The edges of folded sheets of paper, which are trimmed off in the final stages of production.


Bond Paper


A grade of durable writing, printing and typing paper made form bleached chemical wood pulps and cotton fibers. It is most commonly used for letterheads, stationery, business forms, etc.


Bond Strength


The strength of paper or board to withstand layer-to-layer separation. Paper with good bonding strength will not pick during the printing process.


Bone Dry (B.D.)


This term refers to the moisture-free conditions of pulp paper. It also refers to air containing no vapor.


Book Block


A term given the unfinished stage of bookmaking when the pages are folded, gathered, and stitched-in but not yet, cover bound.


Book Paper


Classification of paper that includes various grades and many finishes, among the grades being uncoated book paper and coated book paper used by printing establishments, publishers, etc. Made as wove or laid and can have finishes of antique, eggshell, machine, supercalendered, coated, dull, matte, or glossy.


Bottle Labeling Paper


A special body paper coated with an adhesive mixture. Must resist blocking under humid conditions.


Bound Galleys


The bound galley is used for promotional purposes and is frequently sent to book reviewers prior to printing the book.


Box Board


Paperboard used in the manufacture of boxes. May be made of wood pulp or wastepaper. May be plain, lined or clay coated.


Box Cover Paper


A wide variety of white, colored, coated, uncoated, flint glazed or embossed lightweight paper used expressly for covering paper boxes.


Box Enamel Paper


A glossy coated paper used to cover paper boxes.


Box Liners


A coated paper used on the inside of boxes, which are used for food.


Box Paper


Plain or coated papers usually colored and embossed.


Braille Paper


A smooth and high strength paper suitable for the production of raised dots needed to manufacture reading material for the blind.




Total rupture of a web of paper during the manufacturing of printing process, which results in a tear from edge to edge.




Reduces rags to smaller pieces for beating in a Hollander.


Breaking Length


A measurement of tensile strength of paper corrected for its basis weight. This represents the theoretical length of a uniform width of paper that, when suspended by one end, would break by its own weight.


Breast Roll


Roll number one over which a Fourdrinier wire passes.




Addition of optical brighteners to the stock to make the pulp appear whiter




Paper, paperboard, and pulp are measured through a lab test to determine the degree of reflectivity as measured by blue light to determine its brightness level. Paper brightness affects the legibility and contrast of printing. Printers, publishers, sellers refer to brightness which may be approximately by various photometers such as Photovolt, Elrepho, GE Brightness, Hunter Lab.




A stiff, heavy paper with a caliper of 0.006” and more. Examples include bogus, folding, index, printing and wedding bristol, bristol covers, postcard and coated postcard.




A property of paper that causes it to break when subjected to binding, converting, finishing, folding, and handling. Factors, which contribute to brittleness are composition, moisture, drying and aging.


Broad Fold


A term given to the fold whereby paper is folded with the short side running with the grain.




A type of heavily embossed paper.




A pamphlet that is bound in booklet form.




Paper or board discarded during manufacture or converting of paper; usually repulped.


Broken Carton


A quantity of paper less than a full carton.


Broken Edges


Damaged edges of paper.


Broken Ream


Less than a full ream (500 sheets) of paper.




A printing method whereby special ink is applied to sheets and then a powder is applied producing a metallic effect.




The pulp obtained from the cooking process.


Brush Coated Paper


Paper that has been coated by off-machine brushes.


Brush Coating


A method of coating a web of paper in which the applied coating is distributed and smoothed by means of brushes.


Brush Finish


A high polish given to paper. It is obtained by running the dried or partially dried coated paper over a revolving drum provided with six or more rapidly revolving cylinder brushes, which contact the coated surface of the sheet.


Brush Glazing


Glazing of coated paper with the aid of brushes.


Brush Marks


Brush marks on the surface of brush coated paper due to improper application of the coating.




An area of paper rolls where the paper is overly compressed and creates a buckle when it is wrapped.





A coarse sized cloth used in the bookbinding process.




The acid neutralization in paper by adding an alkaline substance (usually calcium carbonate or magnesium carbonate) into the paper pulp. The buffer acts as a protection from the acid in the paper or from pollution in the environment.




A term used to define the number of pages per inch of a book relative to its basis weight. It is reciprocal of paper density. In the paper trade bulk is a more commonly used measure than density to indicating the "compactness" of paper. Also known as specific volume.


Bulk Product


A mass-produced product sold in large volumes without individual specifications, usually in compliance with a standard, e.g. Newsprint.


Bulking Board


Non-calendered board, lighter in weight per point of thickness.


Bulking Thickness


The thickness of a pack of sheets divided by the number of sheets in the pack.


Bulky Mechanical


A mechanical paper made to a specific caliper as opposed to a fixed grammage. This type of paper is used mainly for mass market paperback books.




The loss of color during drying.


Burnt Paper


Paper, which is discolored and brittle, but otherwise, is intact.




An irregular separation or rupture through the paper or package


Burst Factor


The resistance of paper to rupture when pressure is applied to a side by a specified instrument.


Burst Index


The quotient of the bursting strength of a paper and its grammage in the conditioned state as defined in the standard method of test.


Burst Resistance


The resistance to bursting of a sheet of paper, paperboard of package when subject to impact or pressure normal to the surface.


Bursting Strength


The strength of paper in pounds per square inch, as measured by Mullen tester. This is also referred to as burst and pop strength.


Business Communications Paper


Paper for use in stationery, business forms, checks, copier papers, duplicating papers.


Business Form


Paper prepared to facilitate the entry of written information in a pre-determined format. Usually contains repetitive information to save preparation and reference time.





Coated on one side of the paper.




Coated on two sides of the paper.


Cable Paper


A strong paper used to wrap electrical cables.


Cadmium Yellow


A pigment made from cadmium sulfide and cadmium selenide.


Calcium Carbonate


A type of loading agent used in papermaking as filler or coating pigment to impart opacity to paper.


Calendar Board


A high-strength paperboard used for calendars and displays.


Calender Finished


Paper and paperboard that has been passed through a calendar to improve surface characteristics by application of pressure, friction, and moisture.


Calendar Rolls


A series of polished cast iron rolls at the end of a paper machine where the paper is passed between the rolls to increase its smoothness and gloss.




A on or off the paper machine device for smoothening, glazing, caliper reduction, and caliper leveling of the surface of the paper to improve the finish and reduce the printing roughness of the paper.


Calender Barring or Marks


Irregularly shaped bands across the paper web caused by damaged calender rolls.


Calender Blackening


Glazed translucent spots on paper surface caused by excessive calender roll heat, pressure, poor or excessive and uneven moisture level.


Calender Crushed


Paper that has been crushed in the calendering process.


Calender Dyed


Paper or paperboard that has been colored or stained at the calender stack.


Calender Finish


Finish imparted to paper by the calendering process.


Calender Marks


Marks left on the paper during the calendaring process. Calender blackening and barring are the two most common examples.


Calender Sizing


Sizing chemicals applied to paper sheet during the calendering process.


Calender Stack


A series of horizontal cast iron rolls at the end of a paper machine where the paper is passed between the rolls to increase its smoothness and gloss.


Calender Vellum Finish


Extra smooth vellum on paper surface imparted by calender rolls.


Calendered Paper


Paper that has been smoothed and polished between a set calender rolls. The effect produced by the calendering process is the result of friction combined with temperature and pressure.




Operation carried out by means of calenders for improving the paper finish by increasing gloss and smoothness.





The thickness of a sheet of paper, expressed as thousands of an inch (points or mils), or in microns. Uniform caliper is needed for good printing and for runnability in converting processes.


Canadian Standard Freeness (CSF)


The rate at which water drains from a pad of pulp, measured under standard test conditions.


Canvas Board


A paperboard (used for painting) with a surface of simulated canvas.




In paper industry, the capacity of a machine or mill is usually stated in terms of tons per day or tons per year.


Capacity Utilization Rate


Indicates the efficiency (%) at which a mill or machine is operates.


Carbon Black


A pigment made up of elemental carbon and ash.


Carbon Paper


A grade of tissue paper coated with the mix of oils, dye (pigment), and wax. Paper coated with carbon, which release inks under pressure or impact for making duplicate copies with pen, typewriter, and business machines.


Carbonizing Paper


Lightweight, uncoated paper made from unbleached chemical and/or mechanical pulps. Its surface is coated with a carbon solvent or wax.


Carbonless Paper


Paper specially treated to provide copies without the use of interleaved carbon.


Card Stock


A heavy grammage paper also known as Cover. Used as covers of catalogs, brochures, books or business cards.




A thick, stiff paper produced by pasting multiple layers of paper together.




A quantity of paper shipped from a paper mill in one freight car.




A container usually of relatively thin carton or folding board manufactured by carton manufacturers. It is delivered to users in either flat or collapsed form.




A rough-finish paper used for wrapping.




The stiff covers of a hardbound book.


Case Binding


Books bound using hard board (case) covers.




A byproduct of milk used as an adhesive in making coated papers.





Large corrugated boxes made of board, which are used as containers for packages. Cases are mainly used for transit and storage purposes.


Casing In


The process of placing a book in its case covers.


Cast Coated Paper


Coated paper that is pressure dried using a polished roller, which imparts enamel like gloss finish.


Cast Paper


Paper made by pouring pulp into a specially constructed mold.




Process in green liquor from sulphate (Kraft) pulping is converted to white liquor, thus allowing the cooking chemicals to be re-used.




The main constituent of the cell walls of all plants. All plants contain tissue that, when properly processed, will yield cellulose.


Cellulose Fibers


The fibrous raw material that results from breaking down the wood or plant materials through pulping or bleaching processes. It's the primary ingredient for making paper.


Cellulose Wadding


Soft crepe paper used in bundles or pads.


Chain Lines


Lines that appear on laid paper as a result of the wires (forming fabrics) of the papermaking machine. Also known as chain marks.


Chain Marks


Also called chain lines. Watermarks in paper that resemble impressions of a chain, running parallel to the grain of paper. These lines are normally found in laid papers.




Chalking describes the quality of print on paper when the absorption of the paper is so great that it breaks up the ink image creating loose pigment dust.


Chart Paper


A smooth paper for chart and map printing, usually printed by offset litho.


Chemical Cellulose (Dissolving Pulp)


A highly-purified chemical pulp for conversion into chemical derivatives of cellulose and used mainly in the manufacture of viscose staple fiber, solvent spin fiber, and filament.


Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD)


The amount of oxygen consumed in chemical oxidation of matter present in effluent. COD indicates the content of slowly degradable organic matter in the effluent.


Chemical Pulp


Pulp obtained by cooking wood chips in a chemical solution. Sulphite and sulphate (Kraft) are the two main processes.


Chemical Recovery


Collection, recovery, and regeneration of cooking chemicals so that they can be used again in the pulping process.



Chemi-Thermomechanical Pulp (CTMP)


Pulp produced by treating wood chips with chemicals (e.g. sodium sulphite) before mechanical defibration.




A storage tank for pulp, furnish, water, or other materials used in papermaking.


China Clay


A mineral (kaolin) used in papermaking as a filler and coating pigment. It consists of hydrated silicate of alumina.


Chip Board


An inexpensive and thick one-ply cardboard usually produced from waste paper. It is used for packaging purposes as well as a backing board for notepads etc.




A machine used at sawmills to produce wood chips.




A process in which horizontally or gravity-fed disc chippers convert the debarked logs into chips for pulping.




Wood chips produced by a chipper to produce pulp, fiberboard, and particleboard.




A Japanese term for mulberry bark. Chiri is commonly used to refer to any paper with inclusions of mulberry bark in it.




Chlorine and its compounds are used in the pulp production process to create whiter, stronger paper. Pulp that is not bleached results in brown paper.




Blocks inserted at the end of core to support a roll of paper on the roll stand.




Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage


CIE Color Value


A set of three color values (CIE or Hunter) used to designate color of paper, especially of white and near-white paper.


CIE Whiteness


Paper whiteness measured as per the CIE standards. It refers to measurements made under D65 illumination, which is a standard representation of outdoor daylight.




A small-size cylindrical web defect of pulp or tissue pulling out of the web.


Cigarette Paper


A lightweight paper used in making cigarette. It is unsized and normally has a filler content of about 30%.


Coated Kraft Back Boards, CKB


Board consisting of either bleached chemical pulp or a mineral-coated top layer or both used for packaging food and non-food products.


Clamp Marks


Marks in sheets of paper caused by the clamps, which hold paper in position on a guillotine cutting machine.





Separation of solid components from a solution.




A basin where sludge is removed from the treated effluent by settling process. There are two main types of clarifiers flotation and sedimentary.




A classifier sorts and separates pulp fibers according to their length.




A mineral used as filler in papermaking and as a coating pigment.


Clay Coated Boxboard


A strong and easily-folded boxboard with clay coating used for making folding boxes.


Clear Cutting


A method of forest regeneration in which all trees in a given area are felled.


Clear-edge Carbon


Carbon paper with a narrow strip along the edges to provide a clean margin for gluing and handling.


Close Formation


Close formation refers to the uniform density in a sheet of paper.


Closed-Cycle Mill


A concept in which all liquid effluents from a pulp mill are recovered, practically eliminating water pollution by the mill.


Closure Mechanism


Methods of creating a box shape or sealing a box.


Cloth Finish


Surface finish produced by pressing the linen cloth against the paper during the manufacturing process.


Cloth-Lined Paper


Paper combined with cloth, on one or both sides.


Cloud Finish


An effect obtained when the white pulp is dropped on a web of colored paper.


Cloudy Formation


Cloudy formation is opposite of close formation and indicates unevenness and lack of uniformity of fiber structure in a sheet of paper.





A water-soluble cellulose polymer used as a thickening agent in foods and detergents.


Coarse Screen


Halftone screens used in newsprint.


Coat Weight


The grammage of a coating layer, expressed in g/m2.




Paper and paperboards that have been coated with materials such as clay or pigment and an adhesive.


Coated Fine Paper


Coated paper made from chemical pulp. Also referred to as coated free sheet.


Coated Offset


A paper coated on both sides with high resistance to picking. It's suitable for offset printing.


Coated Paper


Paper that has been coated with pigment and binder with a coat weight of 7.5 g/m2 or higher. Coated papers have a higher opacity and better ink holdout than uncoated papers.


Coated Seconds


Paper or paperboard inferior to desired quality, but still suitable for other usage. Coated seconds are usually sold at lower prices.




Coaters are used to apply coatings to paper after the paper sheet has been formed and dried.


Coating Color Kitchen


Department in a paper mill where coating color is prepared and mixed.


Coating Lump


A piece of dried coating redeposited onto the web of paper.


Coating Mottle


Variation in gloss of a coated calender sheet. A good-coated sheet has relatively uniform gloss after calendering.


Coating Pick


The process of lifting or removal of coating particles from the base sheet during calendering or printing.


Coating Piling


Piling caused by loose particles separating from a coated sheet of paper.


Coating Pits


Coating pits refer to the microscopic holes in the coating air bubbles.


Coating Skip


Irregularly shaped areas on a sheet of paper where the coating layer is absent.


Coating Splash


Spots of excess coating on a coated sheet of paper.




A rippling effect in paper caused by drying at a lower tension. It can be created as a desired effect or can be an unwanted result of improper drying.


Cockle (Crinkle)


Formation of ripples on a sheet of paper caused by uneven moisture or tension during the drying process.




Cold Pressed


Textured surface produced by pressing the paper through unheated rollers.


Cold Spot Carbonizing Ink


Material coated on the back of forms selectively. It's an ink, which can be applied cold to normal printing equipment.


Cold-Set Inks


Inks that are in solid state but melt in the hot press and solidify when they come in contact with paper.




To gather sheets or signatures together in their correct order.


Collected Household Paper


Waste paper collected from households.


Collotype Paper


A printing paper, which is durable enough to withstand excess moisture from the collotype printing process.


Color Fastness


Capacity of dyed paper to retain its original color or to resist fading under influence of heat and light.


Color Lump


Impressed mark on paper caused by a defect, which appears on calender rolls.


Color Match


Color quality when there is no significant difference in color hue between two samples when viewed under standard illumination.


Color Progression


The order in which different color inks are laid down on the paper.


Color Separation


Process of separating each of the three primary colors by optically filtering the image.


Color Strength


A term referring to the relative amount of pigmentation in an ink.




Using Colorimeter, a given solid color may be quantified by analyzing physical color data.


Combination Board


Cylinder-made, multi-layered paperboard with layers from different pulps.


Combined Deinking


Deinking process combining flotation and washing processes.


Commercial Match


Manufacturing a paper to meet the specifications of a sample of paper provided to the manufacturer.


Commercial Register


Color registration measured within plus or minus one row of dots.


Commodity Papers


A generic term used to classify average quality paper grades (such as bond and offset) produced in high volume on big paper machines.


Communication Papers


A term used to describe paper grades (such as bond, writing and xerographic) used by printers and publishers in production of books, magazines, newspapers, etc.





Compressibility describes a paper's capacity to be squeezed (upon flat surfaces) and returned to its prior state. It is an important property of paper when stacks of paper are placed under compression. It is also known as Cushion.


Computer Output Paper


A grade of writing paper with strength and good printing surface. It's also known as "form bond”.


Conditioned Paper


Paper which has been treated in the mill by exposure to hot, moist air to increase the moisture content of the paper for achieving achieve an optimum flatness and stability.




Allowing paper adjust to the surrounding atmosphere until its moisture content is equal to atmospheric moisture content. This process provides for optimum performance on printing presses.




Trees, which are usually evergreen and classified as softwood, such as pines and firs.




Dry solids content (%) of pulp present in a pulp slurry


Construction Paper


A grade paper manufactured in a wide range of colors. This high grammage paper is most often used in elementary schools for cutouts and other artwork.


Contact Print


A print made from contact of a sensitive surface to a negative or positive photograph.




Corrugated board used to make boxes and other containers for shipping materials.




Any material that reduces the quality of paper for recycling or makes it unrecyclable. Contaminants include metal, stickies, foil, glass, plastic, food, hazardous waste, and synthetic fabrics.


Continuous Cooking


A method in Kraft pulping in which raw material is continuously fed into a continuous digester at one end and the pulp and black liquor are removed from the other end of the digester.




Contraries are unwanted pieces of materials present in a sheet of paper.


Conversion Coating


Off-machine coating is sometimes referred to as conversion coating.




A company that converts paper from its original form to usable products such as adding machine rolls, coated papers, and envelopes etc.




The converting process changes the big rolls of papers into useable paper products. Through rewinding, cutting, creping, embossing, printing, coating and other process, the sheet is transformed into napkins, facial tissue, packaging, etc.


Converting Paper


Paper converted from its original state into a new product such as adding machine rolls, coated papers, envelopes, notebooks etc.





A process of treating raw material with chemicals under pressure and heat to produce pulp from which the paper is made.


Cooking Liquor


A chemical solution used to cook wood chips during the pulping process.


Copier/Laser Paper


A grade of low grammage, good quality, and dimensionally stable paper used in photocopying.


Copying Paper


Copying paper is an uncoated woodfree or a mechanical grade white or colored paper usually available in A4 and A3 size.




Volume measurement of pulpwood indicating a pile measuring 4 ft. x 4 ft. x 8 ft., equaling 128 ft.




The tube, usually of paperboard, on which the paper is wound.


Core Cards


A record of specifications included by the manufacturer in each shipment of paper.


Core Damage (Core burn out)


Mechanical damage to the ends of a core, which has resulted from the core chucks tearing into the core ends.


Core Damage (Crushed Core)


A compressed core that is no longer round.


Core Plug


Thick disc placed inside a core to prevent core from being crushed during handling.


Core Slippage


Displacement of the core from its intended position relative to the rolled paper.


Core Waste


Core waste is the paper left on a roll after most of the paper has been used.




Board manufactured from recovered papers to produce paper cores.




Wood located in the centre of the trunk and often darker in color than the surrounding wood


Corner Marks


Marks on a final printed sheet that indicates the trim lines or register.


Corner Stub


Used primarily on continuous forms to assist in manual carbon extraction when the form has been burst.


Correspondence Envelope


A flat case, rectangular in shape and made from one sheet of paper. The sheet is folded to provide a plain front and back consisting of four overlapping flaps.


Correspondence Papers


Refers to writing papers with attractive finish.


Corrugated Board


Corrugated board is manufactured by gluing two flat layers of paper (liner) with a rippled layer of corrugating medium (fluting) in the middle.


Corrugated Board – Double Wall


The structure formed by three flat facings and two intermediate corrugated medium.


Corrugated Board – Single Face


The structure formed by one corrugated member glued to one flat facing.


Corrugated Board – Single Wall


The structure formed by one corrugated inner member glued between two flat facings. It's also known as Double Face.


Corrugated Cardboard


Layers of paper glued together with a ruffled or grooved inner liner. This is the material, which makes corrugated cardboard boxes.


Corrugated Fiberboard


Consists of one or more sheets of fluted paper stuck to a flat sheet(s) of paper.


Corrugating Medium


Paperboard made from chemical and semi-chemical pulp, or waste paper, that is converted to a corrugated board by passing it through corrugating cylinders.


Corrugator (Corrugating Machine)


A machine that is fed the webs of corrugating medium and linerboard and flutes the medium and pastes the liner to make corrugated products.




Cotton is the purest form of cellulose produced in nature and it requires the least amount of processing before it can be used. Cotton fibers are strong and flexible and suitable for producing fine papers.


Cotton Content Paper


Papers utilizing cotton fabrics and cotton linters as a raw material.


Cotton Linters


Short cotton fibers remaining on cotton seed after the ginning process. Cotton linters are used as raw material to produce pulp for papers.


Couch Marks


Defects or shadows appearing in a regular pattern on paper. Couch marks are caused by the irregular removal of water on the wet-end of the paper machine.


Couch Roll


A vacuum roll under the forming fabric. Holes in the couch roll suck out water from the stock and a felt usually picks the wet sheet off the fabric.




A person who transfers the newly-formed sheets of paper from hand moulds to felt blankets.


Cover Paper


A term applied to a grade of paper used for covers of brochures and catalogues etc.




A fissure in the paper caused by break in the coating surface during the converting processes such as printing.




The noise produced from a sheet of paper when it is shaken.



Crash Finish


Paper embossed at the mill to resemble coarse linen.


Crash Perforation


Perforation cut through plies of a collated set of business forms. It's normally done on a collator.


Crayon Paper


Paper used for crayons or watercolor. Crayon paper is a heavy board with a glazed surface on one side and rough finish on the other.




An impression or crease in corrugated or solid fiberboard is used to locate and facilitate folding.


Crepe Paper


A high elasticity paper produced by crowding the web sheet over a roll with a doctor blade.




Creasing the bindery edges of ledger sheets to help them open more freely.




Rubbing off the dye from the surface of a paper.




Trimming original photographs to smaller size.




A T-shaped wooden tool used to remove paper from ropes in a drying loft.


Cross Direction (CD)


Direction at right angle to the flow on a paper machine. It's also known as the direction across the grain. Paper is weaker and more sensitive to changes in relative humidity in the cross direction than the grain or machine direction.


Cross Grain Fold


A fold at a right angle to the direction of the grain (or the machine direction) in the paper.


Cross Perforations


In continuous forms, perforations cutting at right angles to the web direction.


Crushed Roll


Defective roll as a result of stacking rolls on end in an excessively high pile, which causes the lower ends of the lower rolls to fail in the axial direction.




This is a science of analyzing crystalline structure of materials. In the paper industry, it usually refers to the study of cellulose. A high crystalline structure means less swelling of the fibers.




Chemi-Thermo Mechanical Pulping is a pressurized refining process, which is preceded by the addition of sulphite. Bleached CTMP pulp is known as BCTMP.




Plastic-coated board for paper cup production, suitable for cold or hot beverages.




Deformation of a sheet of paper into the form of a cylinder. It is usually caused by nonuniform distribution of strains and stresses throughout the paper sheet as a result of uneven internal moisture and conditioning.




Rupture of sheet in a defined region, not extending to tear the sheet into two pieces.




A term used in web press printing to describe the point at which a sheet of paper is cut from the roll.




Fine paper cut to specific end-use dimensions on a guillotine or rotary type paper trimmer. Usually it refers to business or writing papers that have been cut to dimensions of 8-1/2 x 11 and 8-1/2 x 14 or 11 x 17 inches.




A machine (a cross cutter or square cutter) that cuts rolls of paper into sheets for further trimming to finished basic size.


Cutter Broke


Waste and trimmed paper edges from the cutting operation. This broke is reused as pulp for manufacturing paper.


Cutter Dust


Cutter dust to small particles of fiber and paper dust that result from the cutting operation. The dust adheres to the edges of paper and can work itself into the pile of paper and onto the paper surface to cause trouble during its printing.




A term used for watermark papers to indicate that the paper has been cut to allow the watermark to appear in a predetermined position on the finished sheet.




One of the subtractive primary colors, the hue of which is used for cyan process ink, one of the four-color process inks. Cyan reflects blue and green light and absorbs red light.




A term usually applied to different types of rolls or drums on a paper machine such as dryers.


Cylinder Board


Paperboard made on a cylinder machine.


Cylinder Dried


Describes the paper, which is dried by passing it against the heated iron rolls.


Cylinder Gap


The gap in the cylinders of a press where the grippers or blanket clamps is housed. In printing, space between the ends of a plate wrapped around the press cylinders.


Cylinder Machine


The type of paper machine that makes paper by partially immersing rotating cylinders in vats of pulp stock. Paper is formed as the cylinder turns and water drains from it.


Cylindrical Casting


Stereotyped cast into a curved mat to produce a casting suitable for use on a rotary press.




Colors used in printing to reproduce color photos. The colors are Cyan, Magenta, Yellow, and Black (or Key Color).





A dampening system for printing presses, which utilizes more alcohol (25%), and less water and reduces the amount of paper that is spoiled.


Damask Paper


Writing paper with a finish resembling linen.


Damp Streaks


Streaks caused by uneven pressing or drying.




In lithography, cloth-covered parchment paper or rubber rollers that distribute the dampening to the press plate.




An essential part of the printing process in which a cloth covered rubber rollers distributes the dampening solution to the plate.


Damping Roller


The roller on a printing machine, which applies the moisture directly to the printing plate.


Dancer Rolls


A weighted roller that rides on the web between the roll of paper and the meeting unit to take up slack and keep the web at uniform tension. It is also know as rider roller.


Dandy Roll


Dandy roll is a cylinder covered with a woven wire cloth and mounted on a paper machine. It is used to improve formation and to apply watermarks.




A plant known as the 'Nepal paper plant' used as a source of fiber for papermaking.




A process in which most or all of the bark is removed from the logs before feeding the logs into the chipper, or into the grinder.


Debarking Drum


Large rotating cylinder in which pulpwood logs are tumbled against one another to remove the bark.




A process in which an image is recessed into the paper.


Decalcomania Paper


A transfer paper designed to permit transfer of printed surface to objects such as china, glass, etc. Also known as a decal.




Tree species that annually sheds its leaves during the Fall season. Hardwoods such as maple, chestnut, birch, and poplar are the examples of deciduous trees.




1) A wooden frame that defines the edges of the sheet in handmade papermaking. 2) A strap or board on the wet-end of a paper machine that determines the width of the paper web.


Deckle Edge


The rough or feathered edge of paper. Fuzzy edges of handmade papers are simulated in mould-made and machine-made papers by a jet of water. Handmade papers have four deckle edges, while mould-made and machine-made papers have two.


Deckle Fill


Also known as machine fill. The maximum width of paper machine taken up for making paper. For economic reasons, it should approach as far as possible — to the maximum trimmed width of the machine.


Deckle Frame


A wooden frame that rests on the top of a mold during the papermaking process. It acts as a barrier to keep the pulp with in the mold.


Deckle Slip


Strip of wood fixed to the underside of the deckle to stop the pulp from creeping.


Deckle Stain


Paper that is colored or tinted along the deckle edge.




Irregularities in finished paper that reduce the appearance or cause weaknesses in the sheet.




Separation of wood fibers by mechanical or chemical means.




A defoamer is a chemical added to a liquid to reduce or eliminate the foaming tendency of the liquid.




Premature loss of leaves due to airborne pollution or other factors interfering with vital processes in trees.




The suitability of recovered paper for deinking process.


De-Inked Paper Stock


Recycled paper from which the ink has been removed by chemical and mechanical means to produce clean fibers.


De-Inked Pulp


A waste paper pulp prepared by a combination of mechanical disintegration and chemical treatment to remove ink from recycled paper.




A process in which most of the ink, filler, and contaminants are removed from recovered paper.


Deinking Loss


Loss of useful material from the pulp during the deinking process. The loss could range between 10-40%.




Parting of layers of a sheet of paper through the plane of the sheet.




Removal of lignin from wood fibers (cellulose and hemi-cellulose). Lignin binds wood fibers together. Delignification primarily takes place during the pulping process.




A term for a standard sized printing paper measuring 17.5 x 22.5 in.




Equipment used to analyze the porosity of paper.




A photoelectric instrument used to measure the density of colored ink or print density.




Density or specific gravity of paper is it weight per unit volume, obtained by dividing the basis weight by caliper. Paper density (in g/cm2) expresses how compact the paper is.




Mass of airborne pollutants deposited on a unit area of land or water in a given time (in grams per square meter per year).




A method of reducing the resin (pitch) content of wood prior to cooking either by storage or using bleaching chemicals.




A term that describes that portion of lower case letters which extends below the main body of the letter, as in "p".




Coating surface of a carbonless paper with desensitizing ink to inhibit image transfer.




Machine for removing dust and dirt from rags or esparto grass (also known as a willow).




A light-sensitive coal tar product used as a coating on presensitized plates as well as overlay proofs.




An engraved stamp used for impressing an image or design.


Die Cuttability


Suitability of paper or paperboard for die cutting into blanks of a given shape.


Die Cutting


A method of using sharp steel ruled stamps or rollers to cut various shapes i.e. labels, boxes, image shapes. Male and female dies are used to cut paper or board in desired shapes.


Die Stamping


An intaglio process for printing from images engraved into copper or steel plates.


Die Wiping Paper


A type of paper used to clean surface of printing plates in the intaglio process.




A cut made with a special punching blade instead of with a conventional rotary knife.


Die-Cut Paper


Paper cut with a special punching blade rather than a conventional rotary blade.


Dielectric Papers


A type of paper, which is free of any metallic elements that might conduct electricity.


Dielectric Strength


The degree to which paper resists penetration of an electric charge.




A common size in publication (about 5 1/2" x 8 1/2" in size).




A cylindrical pressure vessel used to treat wood chips with chemicals under elevated pressure and temperature to produce pulp for papermaking. Digesters can be stationary or revolving, horizontal or upright, cylindrical or spherical.


Digester House


A section in a pulp mill, which houses digesters.


Digital Printing


A printing process that allows printing directly from electronic images without the need for film or color separations.


Digital Printing Machine


Printing machine that prints direct from a computer data file onto paper, using the same image transfer techniques as are used in copiers and printers.


Digital Printing Paper


Paper or board specially designed to be used in digital printing machines.


Digital Proof


Color separation data is digitally stored and then exposed to color photographic paper creating a picture of the final product before it is actually printed.


Dimensional Stability


The degree to which a paper will maintain its size and shape when subjected to changes in moisture content and relative humidity.


Din 6738


An international standard that guarantees the paper for permanence with a life expectancy of at least 100 years.




A carcinogenic contaminant generated when chlorine is used in bleaching wood pulp.




Deinked Pulp – a pulp produced from deinked wastepaper.




A fine paper made specifically for the printing of diplomas, certificates, and documents. Its main properties are durability and permanence.


Diploma Parchment


Paper made from cotton fibers. It resembles animal parchment and is surface sized with high quality animal glue.


Direct Cooking


Pulping process in which heating is achieved by blowing steam into the cooking liquor.


Directory Papers


A lightweight and uncoated groundwood paper used for printing telephone directories and catalogues.






Foreign material, which has a color in contrast to that of the paper. An instrument, The Papric Counter, is used in laboratories to identify dirt specks.


Disc Refiner


A machine, which uses rotating discs or plates for refining pulp during the stock preparation process.




A pile or stack of paper lying concave rather than flat.




Disperging is used in the treatment of recycled fibers. It reduces impurities in recycled paper to such a small size that they are no longer detrimental to paper quality.




The separation of a substance into the smallest possible particles using another substance (the medium). Used in papermaking to homogenize pulp properties and remove impurities.


Display Board


Paperboard used for display advertising.


Display Type


Any type that stands out from the rest of the type on a page, which attracts attention of the reader.


Dissolving Pulp


A high-purity chemical pulp of special quality. It has a high alpha-cellulose content (usually 90% or more). Dissolving pulp is used for producing acetate and viscose fibers.


Distribution Rollers


In the printing process, the rubber coated rollers responsible for the distribution of ink from the fountain to the ink drum.




A company, which purchases paper from a paper mill for resale to end-users.




A blade-like device, which scrapes off excess liquid or fibers off a roller to help maintain a smooth surface.


Doctor Blade


1. In papermaking, a device that cleans the surface of paper machine rolls.2. A term in gravure printing which refers to the knife-edge that runs along the printing cylinder. Its function is to wipe the excess ink away from the non-printing areas.


Document Paper


Document paper has a high ageing resistance. It is usually made from chemical pulp and may also contain rags.


Dog Ear


A small fold that occurs on the corner of the paper during the papermaking or converting process.


Dot Gain


A printing problem where dots print larger than desired, creating darker tones, or color imbalances.


Dot Matrix Printing


Impact printing where each character is made up of a pattern of dots synchronized by computer control. During printing the print head strikes against a ribbon to print on the paper surface.


Dots Per Inch (DPI)


A reference for the resolution of a printed or screened image. Higher numbers mean higher resolution or more dots composing an image.


Double Calendered


A type of paper passed through two calenders.


Double Cap


Trade term for size 17" x 28" available in business papers.


Double Coated


A sheet that has been coated twice on the same side. Not to be confused with a paper sheet coated on both sides.


Double Deckle


Machine-made papers having a deckle edge on two edges of the sheet.


Double Fold


Resistance of paper to repeated folding/unfolding. Folding endurance is important for currency, blue print, record papers, ledger, map etc where resistance against repeated folding/unfolding is required.


Double Imprint Unit


Two sets of printing cylinders that permit imprint to be altered as press continues to run at full speed.


Double Sizing


The process of applying size a second time after first sizing has been dried.


Double Wall Corrugated Board


A type of corrugated board, which has two layers of fluting and three facings.




The unintentional printing of two images slightly out of register.




When a paper machine is stopped for repairs, it is referred as 'down'. Downtime can occur due to mechanical failure, change of grades in production etc.




Volume of wood removed from the forest in a given time.




Removal of water at the paper machine wet-end while the paper sheet is consolidating.


Drainage Foils


Drainage foils are tapered foils placed under the wire at a slight angle so that when the wire runs over them at high speeds, suction is created and the water from the wet stock is separated efficiently.




A method used by ink makers to determine the color, quality, and tone of ink. The method involves an application of a thin film of ink using a spatula or blade to measure the ink's color shade and characteristics.


Drawing Paper


A good quality, dull-finished paper strong enough to take erasures. They have a low opacity and wash-fast.




A term that describes additives to ink which speed up the drying process.




The actual drilling of holes into paper for ring or comb binding.


Drop Out


In printing, halftone with no screen dots in the highlights or background.


Drumhead Manila


A type of rope papers. Usually available in 24" x 36" size.


Dry Coating


A coating method in which a binder is applied to the paper surface followed by dry coating pigment.


Dry Creping


Creping of a paper web when it's dry.


Dry Cylinder Machine


In a dry cylinder machine, pulp is poured onto the surface of the cylinder and the water drains away through the cover on the cylinder.


Dry Finish


Paper and paperboard get a dry finish when calendered without the use of water.


Dry Offset


A method of printing from a relief plate without the use of any fountain solution.


Dry Solids


Dry solids is defined as the mass of dried sample as a percentage of the mass of original sample.


Dry Strength


Mechanical strength of a dry sheet of paper indicated by its mechanical properties such as tensile strength, tearing resistance, and folding endurance.




The part of a paper making machine where the paper passes through steam-heated drying cylinders. The dry end can also consist of calenders, cutters, slitter, and reels.




A series of large cylindrical steam-heated rolls that dry the paper web.


Drying Loft


A large airy room in which sheets of handmade paper are hung or laid to dry.


Dual Distributor, Dual House, or Dual Merchant


A paper distribution firm, which deals in fine and industrial papers.


Ductor Roller


The roller between the inking and the dampening rollers.


Dull Coated


Paper is said to be dull coated when it registers a gloss test reading of less than 55%. Characteristically, dull coated or finished paper has a smooth surface and is low in gloss. Dull coated paper is also known as dull finish paper.


Dull Finish


Paper is said to be dull coated or matte finish when it registers a gloss test reading of less than 55%. Dull coated papers have a smooth surface a low gloss. Dull coated paper is also known as dull finish paper.




A page or a set of pages assembled in the exact position, form and style desired for the finished piece of printed work. Used as a model or sample for the printer.



Load securement.  Loose packing material used to protect a cargo from damage during transport.  Transit protection products.




A two-color halftone reproduction generated from a one-color photo.


Duplex Board


Duplex board used for packaging purposes consists of two layers, mostly made from waste paper pulp.


Duplex Coating


The process of coating both sides of a paper sheet at the same time.


Duplex Cutting


The process of converting a web of paper into sheets on a cutting machine so that two different lengths of sheet can be cut at the same time.


Duplex Paper


Paper which has a different color or finish on each side.


Duplex Paper/Board


Paper or paperboard consisting of two layers of different furnishes composition.




When paper is printed on both sides of the sheet.


Duplicating Stencil Paper


A thin, strong, lightweight paper made from long-fibred stock, suitably impregnated or coated such as with oil. This paper is used for preparation of Stencil.




A machine for making copies with the aid of a specially prepared duplicating master.




The degree to which paper retains its original qualities.




Small particles of paper, fibers, or coating materials may arise at calendering, slitting, and sheet trimming.




Any deckle edged paper, originally produced in the Netherlands.


Dye Based Ink


Any ink that acquires its color by the use of aniline pigments or dyes.





Elemental Chlorine Free – papermaking pulp bleached without the use of elemental chlorine. ECF bleaching process uses chlorine dioxide in combination with oxygen, hydrogen peroxide, and sodium hydroxide.


ECF Paper


Paper made with ECF wood pulps.




A label granted to products that pollute the environment less than similar products used for the same purpose.


Edge Chains


Extra chain lines running on the outer edge of short sides of the mould for extra strength.


Edge Crush Test


A test to evaluate the compression strength of containerboard used to manufacture corrugated shipping boxes.


Edge Protectors


A heavy board used to protect the ends of rolls during shipment and storing.




English Finish – A finish between machine-finished and supercalendered papers.




The liquid waste of industrial processing. Effluents of the papermaking process usually include a small amount of suspend solids and dissolved chemicals.


Effluent Treatment


Effluent treatment usually consists of two processes: 1) Primary treatment process removes suspended solids from effluent. 2) Secondary treatment process reduces the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and toxicity of effluent.


Eggshell Finish


A relatively rough finish of paper surface that resembles an eggshell achieved by bypassing the calendering process. A special felt is used to mark the surface before the paper is dried.


Elastic Strength


The ability of paper or paperboard to resist stress acting in the plane of the sample.


Electronic Proof


A process of generating a prepress proof in which paper is electronically exposed to the color separation negatives. The paper is passed through the electrically charged pigmented toners resulting in the finished proof.


Electrostatic Copy Paper


A smooth-finished and medium-weight bond paper made from chemical pulps. This paper is generally treated with a zinc-oxide coating material.


Electrostatic Precipitator


Equipment used to clean up flue and process gases. Removes 99.5-99.8% of dust particles emitted from recovery boilers, lime kilns and bark-fired boilers


Elliptical Dot


Halftone screens in which the dots are actually elongated to produce improved middle tones.


Elmendorf Tear Test


A test to determine a paper’s resistance to tearing.


Embossed Finish


Paper with a raised or depressed surface resembling cloth, leather, wood, or other patterns.




A method of paper finishing whereby a pattern is pressed into the paper. Produced on a special embossing machine after the paper has dried to create finishes such as linen.




Discharge of polluting substances to air, land, or water.




The mixing of two distinct solutions that do not mix such as a fountain solution, which is water-based and ink which is oil based.


Emulsion Coating


Coating of paper with an emulsion containing plastic or resin.




A term that describes a glossy coating on paper. Also, a general term for clay coating on papers.



End-Leaf Paper


A strong and fine quality paper used for binding a book's contents to its cover. It can be either plain or coated and sometimes colored or marbled,




Attaching the final sheet of a signature of a book to the binding.


Engine Sizing


Addition of chemicals to papermaking stock to impart water resistance to paper. It is sometimes known as internal sizing.


English Opacity Book


Paper used in books and catalogs when a lightweight paper of high opacity is required. Usually made from chemical wood pulp and fillers, it ensures maximum opacity.




Printing by the intaglio process. Ink is applied to the paper under extreme pressure resulting in a printing surface being raised. Uses include fine letterheads and wedding invitations.


Envelope Lining Paper


Tissue paper that decorates and lines envelopes of fine stationery papers.


Envelope Paper


Envelop papers are opaque, writable, and printable and must have a high folding strength. Envelope paper can be made from chemical or mechanical pulps. They can be machine glazed or calendered, white or colored.


Enzyme Bleaching


A bleaching technique in which cooked and oxygen-delignified chemical pulp is treated with enzymes prior to final bleaching. Enzyme bleaching allows pulp to be bleached without chlorine chemicals.




Environmental Protection Agency.


Equilibrium Moisture Content


The moisture content of paper that has reached a balance with the surrounding atmosphere. Under the equilibrium condition, paper can neither absorb nor release moisture.


Equivalent Weights


A system of comparing papers of different sizes and basis weights. It uses a mathematical equation to compare paper weights with different sizes and basis weights.




A quality of paper that assures a clean erasure. Erasability is achieved by excessive pulp refining resulting in firmly bonded fibers and a hard surface.




A North African grass, which makes a soft, ink receptive paper sheet. It is also found in Spain.




The process of producing an image on a plate by the use of acid.


Evaporation Plant


Unit used at pulp mills to concentrate spent liquor to make it suitable for burning and subsequent chemicals recovery.




The degree to which paper changes its dimensions for a given change in relative humidity.




That stage of the photographic process where the image is produced on the light sensitive coating.


Extended Cooking


Method of cooking pulp to a low lignin-content. Extended cooking reduces the bleaching chemicals demand.




A white pigment added to a colored pigment to reduce its intensity and improve its working qualities.




A method of laminating paper and paperboard.


Extrusion Coating


A method of coating a web of paper with resins, plastics, or similar hot-melt compounds.







A term in the binding process referring to folding and gathering.


Fabric Press


Fabric press uses absorbent felt to absorb moisture from the sheet in combination with nips that squeeze the water out. The felt must be squeezed dry again before it picks up a new section of sheet.


Facsimile Master


Material consisting of solid or fluid carbon combined with master paper for heat or transfer posting machines.


Fan Fold


Paper folding that looks like an accordion or fan, the folds being alternating and parallel.




Momentary separation of the press sheets by hand riffling so that fresh air is allowed to sweep over the surface of each sheet.


Fast Color


Color that is not affected by light, acids, alkalis or other external stimulus.




Folding Boxboard – a multi-layer coated board with an outer layer of Kraft pulp and the middle layer of mechanical pulp. It is used primarily for consumer cartons for packaging of dry and moist foods, cigarettes and other consumer products. Also used in the graphic industry for catalogue covers, postcards and folders, etc.


Feather Edge


Edging similar to a deckle edge, a thin rough edge on carbon paper.




The tendency of ink to spread along the paper fibers so that the image produced does not have sharp, clean edges.




A term indicating extreme lightness in proportion to bulk. Also used to identify lightweight book papers and thin opaque writing papers; airmail papers.


Featherweight Book Paper


Paper for novels, where good bulk is required for a precise number of pages.


Feed Rollers


Rubber wheels that hold the sheet of paper in position and move it from the feed pile to the grippers.




The section of a press, which separates the sheets and feeds them into position for printing.




A term expressing an individual's impression of a paper's finish.




A woven and endless conveyor belt that receives papers from the Fourdrinier wire and delivers it to the drier. It is traditionally made of wool but frequently of a combination of two or more of the fibers like wool, cotton, and synthetic fibers.


Felt and Wire Sides


Refers to the top and bottom surfaces, respectively, of paper made on conventional Fourdrinier paper machines.


Felt Finish


Surface characteristics of paper achieved by using woven wool or synthetic felts with distinctive patterns to create a similar texture in the finish sheets.


Felt Mark


A mark or pattern on paper or paperboard produced by press or drier felt. The mark may be wanted or unwanted and special effects can be introduced in this way.


Felt Side


The top side of the paper, usually recommended for best printing results. The top side of felt is preferred for printing because it contains more filler.




A material woven from either cotton or wool with a raised surface, which supports the wet sheet of paper during pressing.




An old method of preparing rags for the beater. In this method, piles of wet rags were allowed to heat up and rot before they were used for papermaking.


Festoon Drying


Drying of paper by festooning it on poles.




The slender, thread-like cellulose structures that form a sheet of paper. Fibers used in papermaking come primarily from wood and recovered paper. Cotton is also used to make certain products.


Fiber Loss


Unwanted loss of fibers in pulp and paper processing.


Fiber Orientation


Refers to the alignment of fibers in a paper sheet.




A type of board made from defibrated wood chips on wet-lap forming machine. Fiberboard is used as a building board.




The machines and process systems involved in converting wood chips into pulp. A typical fiberline steps can include cooking, washing, screening, knot separation, refining, and bleaching.




A structural change occurring in the walls of chemical pulp fibers during beating. Fibrillation refers to loosening the fibrillae during the mechanical process of beating the fibers in preparation for papermaking.




The maximum width of paper that can be made on a given paper machine.


Filled Bristol


A board made on a cylinder machine. The middle layer of filled bristols is of different fiber than the outside layers.




Non-oxidizing clays or minerals added to the pulp to improve paper properties such as opacity and smoothness. Addition of fillers reduces the cost too as fillers are less expensive than fibers.


Filler Content


Ratio of material originating from filler and coating chemicals to original mass of pulp.




The practice of adding minerals to the pulp furnish in the beater that increases printability and other desirable characteristics of the paper. Also known as loading.


Filling In


A fault in printing where the ink fills in the fine line or halftone dot areas.




Used to make the printing plates with. Output from an image setter or taken with a camera.


Film Coat


Any thinly coated paper stock. Also known as wash coat.


Film Coating


A light film pigmented coating is applied to the paper at the size press of the paper machine to improve the smoothness of uncoated book grades.


Filter Paper


Unsized paper made from chemical pulp. Filtration rate and selectivity are the important requirements for a good performance of filter papers.


Fine Merchant, Fine Paper Distributor


A paper distribution company sells and distributions fine printing papers only.


Fine Paper


Paper usually produced from bleached chemical pulp for printing and writing purposes. Fine papers usually contain less than 10% mechanical pulp.




Small fragments of fibers produced generally produced during the refining process.




Finish refers to the surface characteristics of paper. A high finish refers to a smooth surface. A low finish refers to a relatively rough and toothy surface.




Processes that occur after the papermaking operations and prior to the shipment of paper from the mill. These processes include supercalendering, slitting, rewinding, trimming, sorting, etc.,


Finishing Broke


Discarded paper resulting from finishing operation such as trimming etc.


Fish Eye


Round, transparent spots on the surface of coated paper or paperboard.




A paper strip protruding from a roll or skid of paper. May be used to mark a splice in a roll of paper.


Flame Resistant Paper


Flame resistant papers are non-flammable and to a certain extent incombustible too.




The closing members of a fiberboard box.




The assemblage of negatives and positives, which are used as a composite image to create the printing plate.


Flat Form


A completed box, which has not been erected. This is a conventional method of delivering boxes to end users.






Paper delivered by a paper mill in flat sheets, usually larger than 17" x 22" in size.


Flexographic Printing


A printing process using a rubber or plastic plate with a raised image area. The plate is mounted to a rotary cylinder. When the cylinder is inked, it prints the image onto paper through light pressure.




Letterpress printing using relief plates on direct presses. This process of printing uses rubber plates and special aniline inks.


Flint Paper


A high-glaze and brightly-colored paper coated on one side.


Floating Load


Paper loaded into a freight car in a manner that allows it the freedom to shift slightly without getting damaged in transit.




Refers to formation of flocks or fiber bundles.



Flocked Paper


Decorative paper with a velvet-like smooth and unglazed surface.




Absorbent paperboard, which when impressed and dried becomes a matrix for preparing stereotypes.




In printing, when the ink flows onto a printing plate because the ink fountain has been set improperly.


Flotation Deinking


Deinking process for recycled papers in which air is blown into a fiber suspension. Ink particles adhere to the air bubbles and rise to the surface, where they are removed.




In reference to printing ink, the ability of an ink to spread over the press rollers.


Flue Gas Scrubber


An equipment for removing impurities from flue gases by dissolving them in aqueous solution.




Fluff consists mainly of individual fibers, particles of fillers, particles of sizing agents.


Fluff Pulp


Kraft or CTMP pulp with a cotton-like appearance. It is used for absorbent materials such as nappies and feminine hygiene products.


Fluid Ink


Ink with a low viscosity. Also called liquid ink.




A property of fluorescent dyes, which enhances paper's brightness in normal lighting.


Fluorescent Dye


A dyestuff, which improves the brightness of paper. Also known as Optical Bleaching Agent (OBA).


Fluorescent Paper


Paper with a high reflectance, resulting from colored, light-emitting dyes that reflect white light.


Flush Cover


A bound book or booklet having the cover trimmed to the same size as the text.




The rippled middle layer in corrugated board, produced generally from recycled fiber.


Flying Pastor


A device used to splice rolls of paper during the converting or printing process without having to stop the equipment.


Foam Spots


Small spots on the finished paper that are a result of foaming during the formation or coating process.


Fodder Pulp


Protein produced from pulp mill spent liquors and sometimes used as animal feeds.


Foil Paper


Paper coated with either aluminum or bronze powder finish, or leaf finish.




Tapered strips of plastic fitted under the moving wire of a Fourdrinier machine to scrape off excess water for a quicker drainage of water.




A term used to describe how sheets are folded; single fold, double fold, centerfold, and gatefold.


Fold Marks


A short line printed on business forms indicating where they may be folded.




A device at delivery end of a press or collator to fold continuous forms.


Folding Boxboard


A multi-layer coated board with an outer layer of Kraft pulp and the middle layer of mechanical pulp. It is used primarily for consumer cartons for packaging of dry and moist foods, cigarettes and other consumer products. Also used in the graphic industry for catalogue covers, postcards and folders, etc.


Folding Bristol


Bristol board with good folding ability and printability.


Folding Endurance


A test used to measure the number of times a strip of paper or board can be bent, creased, and folded before rupture. Folding strength is important in many printing applications such as books, maps, pamphlets, and manuals.




A ream or sheet in its full size. When used in connection with books, means the sheet has been folded once, producing four pages.


Form Rollers


The rollers that come into direct contact with the plate of a printing press.




The uniformity of the distribution of fibers in a sheet of paper, which influences the appearance, strength, and mottle of the paper. Formation is judged by transmitting light through the sheet and looking at its structure and degree of uniformity. Paper with good formation prints with less mottling and has more uniform opacity.


Fountain Solution (Dampening Solution)


In lithography, water based chemical solution used to dampen the place and keep non-image areas from accepting ink. Traditionally contained gum arabic, acid, and defoamer.


Four Color Process


The usual process of printing full color photos.




A machine that receives the pulp slurry in the papermaking process for removing water from the slurry and transferring the web to the press section of the paper machine. The machine takes its name after the Fourdrinier brothers who financed its early development. The machine was developed by Louis Robert.


Fourdrinier Wire


Continuously traveling and endless metal or plastic mesh belt on which the paper is formed.


Free Pulp


The pulp from which the water drains easily.


Free Sheet


Paper made from chemical pulp and contains no or minimal amount of mechanical pulp. It is generally of a higher quality, a high density, and is less absorbent.




The rate at which water drains from the slurry of pulp on the forming section of a paper machine.


Friction Glazed


A high-finish paper produced by passing the web through chilled iron rolls, one large and one small, revolving at different peripheral speeds. The rolling friction between the two rolls produces a highly glazed surface.




A halo that appears around halftone dots.


Fugitive Colors


Colors that lose tone and permanency when exposed to light.


Fugitive Inks


Inks which are not permanent, which fade or change color when exposed to light.


Full Body Imprint


Form with no limit on the area to be imprinted.


Full Coated Carbon


Carbon paper coated completely on one surface.


Fully Bleached Pulp


Pulp that has been bleached to the highest brightness attainable (usually > 90 ISO)




A mixture of fibers, water, chemicals, and pigments. The furnish used to make paper has about 1% solid material and 99% water.




A term for the fibers that project from the surface of uncoated papers.



Galley Proof


A proof of text copy before it is pasted into position for printing.




A bast fiber from the gampi tree used in Japanese papermaking to yield a smooth, strong sheet.




The bundling of two or more different printing projects on the same sheet of paper.




Assembling sheets of paper and signatures into their proper sequence; collating.




Nitrogenous constituent of skin, bones, and hooves of animals, used as a size to strengthen the surface of the paper.


Genuine Watermark


Watermark made on the paper machine, with a dandy roll.




Glazed Imitation Parchment – a strong glazed paper made from bleached cellulose pulp.




A strong, transparent paper produced by dampening and supercalendering. It is very smooth and glossy on both sides and has resistance to the passage of oils and grease. It is used as envelope windows and as protective wrapping for foods, candies, tobacco products etc.




Gloss or polish on a sheet of paper.




A type of paper with a glossy surface, applied either during manufacture or later by calendering or plating etc.


Glazed Imitation Parchment


A strong, glazed paper made from bleached cellulose pulp.




The property of a surface, which causes it to reflect light specularly. Gloss expresses the amount of directed light that is reflected in a certain direction. Gloss of paper is measured by Gardner Gloss Meter, which measures the reflected light at an angle of 75°.


Gloss Finish


The shiny and highly reflective surface quality of paper achieved by calendering.


Gloss Ink


Quick-drying oil-based inks with low penetration qualities, used on coated stock.


Gloss Mottle


Mottle that is characterized by variation in gloss over the paper surface.


Gold Announcements


A gold colored writing paper used for mail advertisements.


Goldenrod Paper


A specially coated masking paper used by strippers to assemble and position negatives for exposing onto printing plates.




Classification of papers to differentiated from each other on the basis of their furnish content, appearance, or their end use.




Refers to the alignment of fibers in the direction of their flow on the paper machine. Long grain describes fibers running parallel to the longest side of a sheet. Short grain running parallel to the short side. Folding and scoring work best when done in the paper's grain direction. Grain also affects tear strength, stiffness, and dimensional stability.


Grain Direction


Direction in which the fibers of machine-made paper lie due to the motion of the machine. When machine-made paper is moistened, the fibers swell more across their width than along their length, so the paper tends to expand at right angles.


Grain Long


A term used to indicate that the grain of the paper is parallel to the longest measurement of a sheet of paper.


Grain Short


Grain short is perpendicular to grain long.


Grained Paper


A paper embossed to resemble various textures, such as leather etc.


Grainless Plates


Offset plates that do not require graining.




In metric system, weight (in grams) per square meter of paper or paperboard.


Graphic Paper


A grade of fine paper with a pigmented surface layer, which increases the uniformity of the printing surface and provides improved printing properties. It’s used mainly for the reproduction of illustrations.






An intaglio or recessed printing process. The recessed areas are like wells that form the image as paper passes through.


Gravure Paper


Containing mostly mechanical pulp, highly-calendered paper with a high ash content.


Gravure Printing


An intaglio or recessed printing process. The recessed areas are like wells that form the image as paper passes through.


Grease Resistant Paper


A paper having good-to-high resistance to penetration by grease or fats. Grease resistance is either achieved by grinding of the pulp and pore-free web formation or by special additives.


Greaseproof Ink, Coating


Ink or coating that is resistant to the action of fats oils and greases.


Greaseproof Papers


Papers resistant to the penetration of grease; made from heavily beaten chemical pulp or by treating the paper with sulphuric acid.


Green Liquor


The intermediate liquor generated in the Kraft recovery system. Green liquor contains the regenerated sodium sulphide.


Green Paper


Paper, which has not been conditioned.


Grey Balance


The values for yellow, magenta, and cyan that produce a neutral Grey with no dominant hue when printed at a normal density.




Board made of recovered fibers and used for cartons and boxes in various packaging applications.




A machine used to prepare mechanical wood pulp. It consists of a revolving grindstone against which the debarked logs are pressed to disintegrate.




A series of metal fingers that hold each sheet of paper as it passes through the various stages of the printing process.


Gripper Edge


The leading edge of paper as it passes through a printing press.


Gripper Margin


Unprintable back edge of a sheet of paper.




Pulp produced mechanically by grinding logs on a stone. Low cost papers such as newsprint are made by the mechanical pulping process.


Groundwood Mill


An installation for producing mechanical pulp.


Groundwood Paper


A grade of paper made from a furnish containing a large percentage of groundwood pulp.


Groundwood Pulp


Mechanical pulp produced by grinding wood against a grindstone.




Grams per Square Meter. The standard measurement of the weight of paper.




A device that is used to cut or trim stacks of paper to the desired size. There are three types of guillotine machines – manually operated, electrically powered, and automatic spacing cutters.


Gummed Paper


All papers that include an adhesive on one side of the sheet.




The application of gum arabic to the non printing areas of a plate.




The blank space or margin between the type page and the binding of a book.




A filler for paper with good retention for color and brightness. Unlike other fillers, it does not reduce the efficiency of internal sizing.




Hairline Register


Printing registration that lies within the range of plus or minus one half row of dots. It is the thinnest of the standard printers' rules.


Half Stuff


Partially broken or beaten fibers for papermaking.




The process of converting continuous tone photographs into dots. A screening process done on a camera at the film stage of the preprinting process.


Halftone Blotting Paper


A type of paper that has been smoothed to give it a suitable printing surface on the top side.


Halftone Paper


A high finish paper that is ideal for halftone printing.


Handling Damage


Any physical damage to paper, which occurs during storage or shipping of paper.


Handmade Finish


Paper with a rough finish similar to handmade papers.


Handmade Paper


A sheet of paper, made individually by hand, using a mould and deckle. It is defined as a layer of entwined fibers, held together by the natural internal bonding properties of cellulose fibers.


Hard Mixed Paper


A type of recovered paper that includes Kraft paper, corrugated cardboard, and office papers.


Hard Pulp


A term used to describe chemical pulp with a high lignin content.


Hard-sized Paper


Paper that has been treated with a large amount of internal size to increase its resistance to moisture.




Wood from a deciduous broad-leaved tree such as birch, oak. Hardwoods have short fibers. These fibers are used in papermaking to obtain good formation, smoothness, opacity and a good print surface.


Hardwood Chemical Pulp


Chemical pulp made from hardwood.




High Consistency – pulp suspension with a consistency between 18-40%.


Head Margin


That space which lies between the top of the printed copy and the trimmed edge.




Located at the wet-end of a paper machine, the headbox delivers a uniform jet of paper slurry.




Paper discs applied to the ends of rolls for protection.


Heartwood, Corewood


Wood located in the centre of the trunk and often darker in color than the surrounding wood.


Heat Transfer Paper


The paper used in thermal transfer printing (Sublimation printing).


Heatset Offset


Heatset printing where the inks have been printed by web offset lithography.


Hectographic Paper


Also known as duplicating paper.




One of the three main constituents of wood, along with cellulose and lignin. Hemicellulose is alkali-soluble, non-cellulosic polysaccharide portion of a wood cell wall.




Hemp is related to the banana plant. Its leaf fiber is used in paper making.


Hexenuronic Acid


Acid formed during chemical pulping that reacts with several bleaching chemicals and increases their consumption.




A term used to describe the effect that occurs when a spec of dust or debris (dried ink) adheres to the printing plate and creates a spot or imperfection in the printing.


Hi-Fi Paper


A high finish machine-calendered newsprint paper.




High Alpha Cellulose


A pure form of wood pulp, which has about the same longevity as cotton or other plant fibers.


High Bulk Paper


Paper stock that is comparatively thick in relation to its basis weight.


High Finish Paper


Machine-calendered newsprint.


High Key Halftone


A halftone that is made utilizing only the highlight tones down through the middle tones.


Hinged Ledger


Ledger paper characterized by a flexible section incorporated into the sheet. This is accomplished by removing some of the fiber on the paper machine, generally by suction.




A wooden paddle used to keep the fiber in suspension in the vat, later replaced by a mechanical paddle in the base of the vat.




The ability of paper or board to resist surface liquid penetration.




That space on the spine of a case bound book between the block of the book and the case binding.




A hood covering the paper machine drying section and designed for moist air removal.


Hot Ground Wood Pulp


Mechanical pulp produced by steam pretreated grinding logs.


Hot Melt


An adhesive used in the binding process, which requires heat for application.


Hot Pressed Paper


Smooth, glazed surface produced by pressing the paper through hot rollers after the formation of the sheet.


Hot Screening


Pulp cleaning at elevated temperature using pressure screens.


House Sheet


A term that refers to a paper that a printer keeps on hand in his shop.




The quality of color, which may be characterized by its position in the whole visible spectrum.




High Weight Coated – a printing paper grade. It's a coated paper produced from mechanical and chemical pulp for magazines, catalogs, and advertising materials.


Hydra Pulper


A vat with a special type of agitator used to rehydrate sheets of dry pulp, pulp up recycled papers, and mix and blend paper stock with water to create the desired slush of pulp stock.




Any process of altering cellulose fibers to increase their ability to absorb water. In papermaking, the process of beating the pulp which increases its ability to hold water.


Hydration Refining


Mechanical treatment of papermaking pulp in a beater or refiner to achieve fiber flexibility and fibrillation.


Hydrogen Peroxide Bleaching


A bleaching method in which the pulp is bleached in alkaline environment with hydrogen peroxide.


Hygienic Tissue


Toilet tissue, facial wipes, paper towels and similar tissue products that disintegrate in water.




The expansion or contraction of paper due to a change in moisture content, usually caused by a change in the relative humidity.




A device that measures the relative humidity of air.




Ability to absorb water vapor from the surrounding atmosphere.


Hymnal Paper


A strong, low-finish, lightweight opaque book paper for printing hymnals.




IGT Print Tester (IGT Pick Tester)


A test instrument that measures the resistance of paper to picking or delamination.


Image Area


That portion of the printing plate that carries the ink and prints on paper.




A high resolution device to output printer's film from a disk. Also a cool yuppy.




The correct sequential arrangement of pages that are to be printed, along with all the margins in proper alignment, before producing the plates for printing.




The absorption of an impregnating agent into paper.


Impressed Watermark


A semi-genuine watermark made in the press section using engraved rolls while the web is still wet. It is sometimes known as a "rubber mark”.




In printing, the pressure of the blanket or plate contacting the paper.


Impression Cylinder


The backing cylinder of a web printing press. It supports the printing of a paper when the image is being pressed down on the paper from a printing plate or an offset blanket.


Imprint Unit


An accessory on web presses used to imprint one side of the web with rubber plates.


Index Board


Woodfree and mechanical board for office and administration purposes.


Index Bristols


Manufactured from chemical wood pulp, index bristols are characterized by strength, ruggedness, and erasability.


Index Card


Paperboard used for recording data in library type of filing systems.


India Tint


The light buff or beige color found in printing papers.




Markings pre-printed on mailing envelopes to replace the stamp.


Indirect Printing


In printing, ink transfer from image carrier to blanket to paper. Offset presses are indirect printing processes.


Industrial Papers


A broad term referring to papers manufactured for industrial uses such as packaging, cardboards, tissue, insulating, and wrapping papers.




Synonym for mottled or granite appearance found in some papers.


Ink Absorption


Extent of ink penetration into paper.


Ink Coverage


The degree of completeness of coverage of a printed surface with the intended ink film.


Ink Fountain


The device, which stores and meters ink to the inking rollers.


Ink Holdout


A paper's ability to hold printing or writing inks on its surface instead of absorbing the inks.


Ink Rub Off


The degree to which ink can be removed from the printed surface by rubbing.


Ink Setting


The inertial resistance to flow that occurs to ink as soon as it is printed.





Ink Tack


The body or cohesiveness of ink. The measure of tack is the force required to split an ink film.


Ink Water Balance


In lithographic printing, the optimal feed of ink and fountain solution to obtain target print density without adversely affecting the white areas.


Inkjet Printing


Printing process of an image or text by small ink particles projected onto the paper surface.




A device used to measure the tack of ink.




A piece of printed material that is inserted into another piece of printed material such as a magazines.


Insulating Paper


A grade of paper, which is strong, pore-free, and is sometimes impregnated with synthetic resins. Insulating paper is made from chemical pulp. Insulating paper must not contain either fillers, conductive contaminants, salts or acids.


Insulation Board


A bulky, flexible paperboard used in buildings.


Insulation Paper


Cable paper used for insulating electrical conductors.




A method of printing in which special ink is doctored into recessed cells that are engraved or Etched into the printing plate. The ink is transferred to paper while pressed into the plate surface in the printing nip.


Integral Proof


A proof made by exposing each of the four-color separations to an emulsion layer of primary colors. These emulsion sheets are stacked in register with a white sheet of paper in the background.


Integrated Mill


A mill manufacturing complex that produces paper from pulp manufactured at its site.




The insertion of sheets of one kind of paper between sheets of another kind of paper or material.


Internal Bond Strength


The measure of the forces with which fibers are bonded to each other within a sheet of paper. Paper with high internal bonding strength resists picking during the printing process.


Internal Sizing


Internal sizing increases the resistance of the finished paper to the penetration and spreading of aqueous liquids such as inks. Also known as "engine sizing”.


International Paper Size


Also known as ISO sizes. ISO standards are based on a rectangle whose sides have a ratio of one to the square root of 2 (1.414).


Iridescent Paper


A coated stock finished in mother-of-pearl.


ISO 14000


A set of environmental standards developed by ISO.


ISO 9000


A set of quality standards developed by ISO.


ISO 9706


International standard for permanent paper.


ISO Brightness


The brightness of paper and paperboard measured at a wavelength of 457 nanometers under standard conditions.


ISO Size


Standard metric paper sizes as recommended by ISO.


Ivory Finish


Finish obtained by calendering through rolls on which beeswax has been applied.





The paper cover sometimes called the "dust cover" of a hardbound book.


Jet Deckle


The edge on a web of paper formed by a stream of water or air in the papermaking process.


Job Lot


Defective or discontinued papers made in small quantities for special orders and sometimes sold at low prices.




The process of evenly stacking sheets of paper directly on top of one another, either by hand or mechanically.




A refining machine invented by J Jordan consists of a conical rotor and housing between which the fiber slurry is passed. Its effect is to shorten the fibers and improve sheet formation.


Jumbo Roll


A large roll of paper coming off the paper machine before cutting.




A strong, long-fibered pulp made from hemp, used in combination with Kraft pulps for the manufacture of jute tag. The fibers are strong and do not fibrillate or bleach easily.


Jute Board


Paperboard made on cylinder machines with outer plies made from Kraft paper or Kraft waste. The inner ply is usually made from mixed waste papers. It contains no jute fiber.




Kaolin (China Clay)


A mineral (kaolin) used in papermaking as both filler and coating pigment. It consists essentially of hydrated silicate of alumina.


Kappa Number


A measure of the amount of lignin remaining in pulp after cooking.




The narrowing of space between two letters so that they become closer and take up less space on the page.


Kid Finish


An index or bristol finished to resemble kid leather.


Kiln Drying


Drying of green wood in kilns to required end use or trading moisture contents.


Kiss Impression


Printing performed with only slight pressure. Refers to a delicate printed impression, just heavy enough to be seen.


Knife Coating


A coating applied to a web of paper by a doctor blade or knife, which spreads the coating evenly across the web.




Small lumps of twisted fibers in the pulp.





An equipment with vibrating screens for removing knots or lumps from the pulp.



Knotter Pulp


Pulp made from the rejects from chemical pulp screening.




The most common fiber used in Japanese papermaking, it comes from the mulberry tree and produces strong, absorbent sheets of paper.




The German and Swedish word for "strong". Used in reference to sulphate pulp because of its relative strength.


Kraft Fluting


Fluted paper made from strong Kraft pulp.


Kraft Liner


Kraft liner is used as an outer ply in corrugated board.


Kraft Paper


High-strength paper made almost entirely of unbleached Kraft pulp.


Kraft Process


The predominant method used for converting a wood chip into wood pulp. Kraft pulping process produces a strong pulp needed for high-speed paper machines, presses and converting equipment.


Kraft Pulp (Sulphate Pulp)


Pulp produced by a process where the active cooking agent is a mixture of sodium hydroxide and sodium sulphide. The Kraft process is the world's predominant chemical pulping process because of the strength of pulp it produces.


Kraft Sack Paper, Sack Paper


A high-strength paper used for the production of bags and sacks made from sulphate (Kraft) pulp.






A slip of paper or other material to be affixed to a container or article,.


Label Paper


One-sided machine-coated or cast-coated paper for making labels.


Laboratory Conditioning


The exposure or seasoning of paper to accurately controlled and specified atmospheric conditions in the test laboratory, so that its moisture content is in equilibrium with the surrounding atmosphere.




A solution in an organic solvent of a natural or synthetic resin. Application of lacquer gives papers a greater gloss and stiffness.




The finish imparted by a dandy roll that impresses the paper during manufacture to produce a permanent watermark. The wires, which produce the laid effect, are situated parallel on the dandy roll.


Laid Finish


A parallel lined paper that has a look of handmade papers.


Laid Lines


Close light lines in laid paper formed by the laid wires of the laid mould or dandy roll.


Laid Paper


Paper with a prominent pattern of ribbed lines in the finished sheet.




Material used to bond together two or more layers of paper or paperboard.


Laminated Paper


Paper formed by bonding a layer of paper to an another layer, which may be a sheet of paper, metal or plastic.


Laser Engraving


A paper cutting technique whereby laser technology is utilized to cut away certain unmasked areas of the paper.


Laser Paper


Paper that has been engineered for optimal performance in xerographic or laser-based imaging devices.


Laser Printing


Xerographic printing where a modulated laser ray is projected on to a photoconductive cylinder or belt by a rotating mirror. The laser serves to produce the electrostatic latent image, which is developed with toners.




A water dispersion of high polymers from natural or synthetic rubber. Used in paper manufacturing for coating, adhesive, and as a barrier.




The dots or dashes used in type to guide the eye from one set of type to the next.


Leaf Stamping


A metal die, either (flat, or embossed).




Individual sheets of paper.


Ledger Paper


A grade of business paper generally used in accounting for keeping records. It is similar to bond paper in its erasure and writing characteristics.


Letterpress Printing


A printing process in which ink is applied to paper, paperboard, or film from raised portions of printing plates or type.




The rate at which a pigment or colored paper fades in sunlight.


Light-Sheet Interaction


When light falls on any material, a part of it is reflected, another part is absorbed and the rest is transmitted through the body of the material. In case of paper, only the reflected and transmitted fractions are of importance.


Light-Weight Coated Paper


Paper produced from mechanical and chemical pulp and coated to provide a high-quality printing surface. LWC papers are used for magazines, catalogues and advertising materials.


Lightweight Coating


Coating applied at a coat weight of 7-10 g/m2 on one or both sides of the paper.



Lightweight Paper


Paper manufactured in weights below the minimum basis weight considered as standard for that grade.




One of the three main constituents of wood, along with cellulose and hemi-cellulose. Lignin acts as the cementing agent in wood, binding the cellulose fibers together and lignin is largely responsible for the strength and rigidity of plants.


Lime Kiln


An important section of a Kraft mill’s chemical recovery system. Lime sludge (calcium carbonate) is burnt in the lime kiln to produce lime.


Lime Sludge


Sludge of calcium carbonate (CaCo3) formed during the preparation of white liquor in the chemical pulping process.


Line Art


Black and white illustration, with no continuous tones (or greys).


Linear Laid Paper


A watermarked sheet with lines to guide the user.




Cuttings and threads of linen cloth used for the manufacture of high-quality rag content paper.


Linen Finish


A paper surface design made by embossing the paper with a linen cloth pattern.




Packaging board used as a surface layer on corrugated board.




The grade of paperboard used for the exterior facings of corrugated board. Used in the manufacture of corrugated and solid fiber shipping containers, linerboard is made predominantly on a Fourdrinier machine. It is used by the packaging industry as a facing material for containers.




The material removed from paper due to linting.




Linters are the short fibers left on the cotton seed after the longer fibers have been removed. The fibers are cleaned and processed into pulp sheets.


Liquid Packaging Board, Milk stock


Plastic-coated board used for the packaging liquids, such as milk and juice.


Lithocoated Paper


A paper that is coated with a special water-resistant material, which is able to withstand the lithographic printing process.


Localized Watermark


Achieved by placement of design on the dandy roll to leave a watermark at the same position on each sheet after cutting.


Loft Dried Papers


A form of air drying where paper is festooned on poles to dry without tension.


Long Fiber Pulp


A general term given to pulp produced from softwoods such as pine.


Long Life Paper


Paper made in accordance with ISO standards (ISO 9706) to achieve the characteristics of permanence.




A lengthwise fold in the direction of the grain.




The appearance of Paper when held up against the transmitted light. It reveals whether the paper formation is even and uniform.


Low Finish


Paper with by low light reflectance. Low-finish papers have low or no glaze or gloss.




Liquid Packaging Board – plastic-coated board used for the packaging liquids, such as milk and juice.




Light-Weight Coated Paper – paper produced from mechanical and chemical pulp and coated to provide a higher quality printing surface. LWC papers are used for magazines, catalogues and advertising materials.






A symbol normally used to designate 1,000 sheets or two reams of paper.


M Weight


The weight of 1000 sheets of a given size of paper.




Bruising or fibrillation of fibers during the beating or refining process.


Machine Calender


A stack of highly-polished cast-iron rolls at the dry end of the paper machine.


Machine Clothing


Fabrics of various types employed on a paper machine to carry the paper web forward. Forming fabrics, press felts, and dryer fabrics are examples of paper machine clothing.


Machine Coated


Paper that has been coated either on one or both sides during the papermaking process.


Machine Creping


Creping of paper on Yankee paper machine. The paper is removed from the Yankee roll by a doctor blade.


Machine Deckle


The width of paper web as it leaves the wet-end of the paper machine.


Machine Direction


The direction in which a majority of fibers tend to orient themselves. More specifically, machine direction is the direction of travel of the forming fabric on paper machine. Machine direction is also known as grain direction.


Machine Dried


The process of drying the paper web on a paper machine rather than drying it in the air after its removal from the machine.


Machine Fill


The maximum possible width of paper machine taken up for making paper. For economic reasons, it should approach as far as possible — to the maximum trimmed width of the machine. Machine fill is also known as deckle fill.


Machine Finish


Paper finish that is obtained while the paper is on the paper machine as opposed to the finish achieved by some post-machine process.


Machine Finished


Mechanical treatment of paper on the paper machine to improve the surface properties of the paper.


Machine Glazed


Paper made on a Yankee machine that has a glossy finish on one side and a rough finish on the other.


Machine Stack


Machine stack is an assembly of rolls for calendering of paper on the paper machine.


Machine Wire


A filtration device cum conveyor belt that separates water from the furnish and carries the paper web from the forming zone to pressing zone of the paper machine.




Paper produced on a completely automatic paper machine, which forms, presses, and dries the paper sheet.


Magazine Paper


Light weight coated (LWC) or supercalendered paper for printing magazines. The selection of the magazine printing paper is mainly dependent on the print run and the demands on the print quality.


Magnetic Black


Black pigments containing black iron oxides, used for magnetic ink character recognition.




Paper that is used in the set-up process of the printing press before the printing run actually starts.


Making Order


Making order is the quantity of paper specially ordered from a mill by the customer. Paper is custom-made to meet the buyer's specifications. A minimum order quantity is required for placing this type of order.


Managed Forests


This term appears to be used interchangeably with sustainable forests.


Manifold Form


Refers to business forms with several parts interleaved with carbon paper.


Manifold Paper


A low caliper bond paper with glazed or unglazed finish used for making carbon copies.




A color or finish similar to that achieved by making paper from manila hemp stock, also known as 'abaca' plant.




High-strength papers and paperboard used for making tags, high-strength cartons, etc.


Map Paper


Paper made from cotton fiber or chemical wood pulps or a mixture of both. Map papers are required to have high wet-strength, high opacity, good finish, and printability along with high folding endurance.


Marble Paper


A type of paper that has a surface pattern resembling to marble. Marble paper is used as end leaves in books.




A process in which strongly stained fibers are added to the stock to give the paper a marbled appearance.


Mark Reading


Optical machine reading of vertical bars, which have been manually introduced.


Marked Stand


A forest area marked for cutting.


Marked Standing Reserve


Estimated volume of wood marked for cutting but not yet felled.


Market Pulp


Pulp produced for sale on the open market to paper mills, as opposed to that produced for own consumption in an integrated or affiliated mill.




In forestry, marking refers to the tree that is to be cut down.




The blocking out of a portion of the printing plate during the exposure process.


Masking Paper


An orange-colored, coated paper (opaque) for use in stripping negatives from which a plate will be exposed.


Matt Finish


A dull-finish paper and paperboard.




A type of paper with low gloss or luster. This type of paper goes through minimum or no calendering.


Medium Density Fiberboard (MDF)


MDF is used in the furniture industry is made from mechanical pulp after the refining process.


Mechanical Paper


The paper that contains mechanical pulp, thermomechanical pulp (TMP), or chemithermomechanical pulp (CTMP) and sometimes chemical pulp.


Medium-Weight Coated Paper (MWC)


Medium-weight coated paper – A type of paper used for magazines, catalogues and advertising materials produced from mechanical and chemical pulp.





A company, which purchases paper from a paper mill for resale to end-users.


Merchant's Brand


A brand name owned by a paper merchant or converter. It is also referred to as private brand.


Merchant's Stock Order


Paper bought by a merchant for his inventory rather than for immediate sale to an end-user.


Metallic Papers


A type of paper, which has a special coating that, allows indelible marks to be made on paper's surface with a metal point or stylus.




Machine Finished – A type of paper, which is calendered on the paper machine to impart it smoothness and gloss.




Machine Glazed – A type of paper that has a glossy finish on one side produced by a Yankee dryer.


MG Or Yankee Machine


MG or Yankee machine has a single highly-polished steam-heated drying cylinder. Paper web adheres to the cylinder as it dries and receives a smooth surface on the cylinder side of the paper


MG Paper (Mono Glazed Paper)


A type of paper that has a glossy finish on one side produced by a Yankee dryer.


Mica Paper


A highly-sized paper that has been coated with ground particles of mica. Base stock is made from chemical wood pulp.


MICR Paper


A high-quality bond paper with good surface properties and dimensional stability.




A method of improving the paper extensibility by pressing a wet mesh against the paper web.




A device for measuring the thickness or caliper of paper.




A measurement of thickness equal to one thousandths of an inch (1 mil = 0.001 inch.)


Milk stock (LPB or Liquid Packaging Board)


A plastic-coated paperboard used for the packaging liquids, such as milk and juice.


Mill Board


A heavyweight board, which is hard, flat, and nonwrapping. Mill board is used in book binding and box making and it is made on a wet machine using fiber refuse, wastepaper, screenings, and mechanical wood pulp.


Mill Bristol


Printing bristols made on a cylinder machine.


Mill Count


A term used by paper merchants to indicate that the requested shipment of paper, shipping directly from the mill to the customer, has been counted by the mill only, and that the merchant has not recounted it.


Mill Cut


A term used to distinguish between the cut edge made by the machine slitter or cutters as opposed to the cut edge made by the trimmer. Cut made by a trimmer is smoother and more accurate.


Mill Direct


It refers to paper that is sold and delivered directly to the end-user from the mill. The sale does not involve paper merchant or distributor.


Mill Edge


Refers to the slightly rough edge of untrimmed papers.


Mill Line


A line of papers (brands) that is owned by the mill and not the merchant.


Mill Net Price


Mill Net Price = (Transaction Price) – (Delivery Cost).

Minority Business Enterprise (MBE)

A business enterprise is an American term, that is a business, which is at least 51% owned, operated and controlled on a daily basis by one or more (in combination) American citizens of the following ethnic minority classifications: African American, Asian American, Hispanic American and Native American. 




The appearance of a printed image out of its correct position




A bast fiber used in Japanese papermaking that yields a soft, absorbent, and lustrous quality. The fibers are fine and relatively short.


Mixed Paper


A term used in paper recycling. It refers to a mix of various grades of papers such as cartons, old mail, magazines, office papers, etc.




An abbreviation for Magnetic/ Optical Character Recognition. MOCR refers to papers designed to perform in both OCR and MICR applications.




In printing, an undesirable halftone pattern produced by the incorrect angles of overprinting halftone screens.


Moisture Content


This is the amount of moisture contained by paper, expressed as a percentage of its total weight. Average amount ranges from 4-7%. Uniform moisture is a necessity in all grades of paper. The amount of moisture in a sheet of paper affects basis weight, printability, physical strength, and runnability.




The ability of paper and paperboard to resist the penetration of water vapor.




A cotton fabric used on the dampening rollers of a printing press.




Refers spotty or uneven ink absorption.


Mottled Finish


A paper appearance, which is characterized by glossy and dull spots on a printed sheet.


Mottled Paper


Made by adding some amounts of heavily-dyed fibers to the stock of colored paper. It is referred to as granite paper.




A tool for handmade papermaking. It is a flat screen that filters fibers through it to form the sheet.


Mould-made Paper


A sheet of paper that looks like a handmade paper but is actually made on a slowly-rotating cylinder mould.


Mullen Tester


A instrument for testing the bursting strength of paper.




A paper or paperboard made up of two or more layers.


Multiply Board Machine


A machine on which a number of plies of paper can be combined to produce a thick cardboard.


Municipal Solid Waste


Municipal solid wastes are the waste product collected as garbage. It usually consists of 30% paper.




Medium Weight Coated – A type of paper used for magazines, catalogues and advertising materials produced from mechanical and chemical pulp.



Narrow Roll


Small width rolls, which require off-machine rewinding.

National Minority Supplier Development Council (NMSDC)

An organization comprised of a network of 38 affiliate regional councils across the United States, all of whom provide minority-business certification and business development opportunities.  Predominant minority business enterprise certifying body.


Natural Colors


Colors containing little or no coloring chemicals.


Natural Durability


Natural resistance of wood to attack by decay fungi, insects, and marine borers.


Natural Papers


Papers that have a color similar to that of wood.




Northern Bleached Hardwood Kraft – A variety of market pulp, produced mainly from birch Trees.




Northern Bleached Softwood Kraft – A variety of market pulp, mainly produced from spruce trees in Scandinavia, Canada, USA, and Russia. NBSK is the industry's benchmark grade of pulp for pricing and inventory data.




Non Condensable Gas. Odorous discharges from mill processes that in previously were vented to the atmosphere. Today, NCGs are collected and disposed of to meet environmental regulations and to stop the nuisance role these gases play with surrounding communities.


NCR Paper


A type of paper coated with carbonless materials for creating duplicate copies.


Net Weight


The weight after the deduction of tare weight or waste weight.


Newspaper, Newsprint


Unsized and uncoated paper manufactured mainly from mechanical and increasingly waste paper pulps. Newsprint is a machine-finished or calendered printing paper (grammage: 40-52g/m2).




Paperboards used as the fluted component for manufacturing multi-ply combined board or wrapping.




A point where two rolls come in contact with each other.



No.1 Manila


A type of paper, which is pale and straw-colored and is made from chemical wood pulps.


Nominal Weight


The basis weight of the paper at which the paper is billed.


Non-Coated Paper


Paper treated in a size-press or pigmented paper where the coat weight is less than 10g.


Non-impact Printing


Describes a segment of printers, such as ink-jet, laser, thermal or electrostatic, that creates images without needing to strike the page.


Non-Integrated Mill


Paper mills that do not produce its own pulp and buy the pulp from open market for meeting their papermaking needs.


Non-Wood Pulp


Pulp made from materials other than wood, for example grasses, straws, bagasse, etc.


Nonwovens Fabric


A cloth-like material made from natural and synthetic fibers.


Nordic Swan


An eco-label applied to papers produced by Scandinavian pulp and paper mills that have low sulphur emissions.


Novel Paper


A high-bulk paper with a rough finish.




Nitrogen Oxide. A major component of gaseous emissions from a boiler or lime kiln.




Neutral Sulphite Semi Chemical Pulp – A semi-chemical pulp produced by cooking woodchips in a neutral sulphite solution.







A term used to describe printed books, catalogs etc., that are bound on their shorter side; also referred to as album bound.






Old corrugated containers.






OCR stands for "Optical Character Recognition", a technology to digitize and "read" printed text and characters.



OCR Paper



A high-quality woodfree paper suitable for optical scanning. OCR paper should have good surface properties and dimensional stability .






Oven Dry (also known as bone dry) – Weight of a paper specimen when dried to constant weight in an oven at the temperature of 105 +/-2 oC.


Overall diameter






Papers that are not of standard sizes, weights, finishes, or colors.



Odd Sizes



Non-standard paper size.






Paper sheets remaining after standard size sheets have been cut.



Office Paper



A type of uncoated printing and writing paper produced from bleached chemical pulp with little or no mechanical pulp.



Off-machine Coating



Coating of paper on a separate coating machine. The coating is not applied on the paper machine and the coating machine can be in the same or in a different location.



Off-machine Creping



A method in which paper is creped in a separate operation rather than on the Yankee machine.






An indirect printing method in which the printed material does not receive the ink directly from the printing plate but from an intermediary cylinder called a blanket, which receives the ink from the plate and transfers it to the paper. It is the most commonly used printing method.



Offset Blanket



A covering for a cylinder on a printing machine for accepting the ink and transferring it to the printing surface.



Offset Gravure



An offset process involving multiple transfers between the gravure plate, the plate cylinder, and a solid rubber plate.



Offset Paper



A type of uncoated book paper, which is manufactured specifically for use on offset printing presses. Offset papers should be pick resistant.



Offset Press



Printing press using an offset method where the image is transferred from the plate cylinder onto paper via a blanket.






Old magazines.



One-time Carbon



A light-weight paper coated only on one side with carbon. This type of paper is used in business forms.






A thin, light-weight paper used for typing with carbon paper.






Refers to processes such as calendering or coating that are carried out on a paper machine.



On-machine Coating



Coating of paper on a paper machine and not as a separate operation. In this case, the coating equipment is an integral part of the paper machine.






Old newspapers.






An instrument that is used to measure paper's opacity.






The ability of a sheet of paper to prevent light transmission through it. High opacity is essential for a paper intended for duplex printing (printing on both sides of paper), or for intensive color printing on one side of the sheet. Opacity increases with increase in grammage of sheet. Addition of fillers, dyestuff, or pigment also increases opacity of paper. However, beating, pressing or calendering of paper decreases it opacity.






A paper property that prevents the transmission of light through the paper sheet.




Opaque Ink


Ink that completely covers any ink under itself.


Operating Efficiency


The ratio of saleable tones manufactured to the maximum possible capacity of the paper machine.


Operating Rate


The ratio of actual days of machine operation to the days available.


Opposite Dimension


Dimension of a sheet of paper at right angles to the machine or grain direction.


Optical Brightener


Fluorescent dyes added to paper to enhance the brightness. Fluorescent dyes absorb ultraviolet light and re-emit it in the visual spectrum.


Optical Characteristics


Characteristics of the appearance of paper or paperboard. The important optical characteristics are brightness, opacity, and gloss.


Optical Density


The intensity of color or the printed image.


Optical Scanner


An Input device that converts characters to machine codes.




A light sensitive surface that is sensitive to all colors except red.




Oriented Strand Board – directionally formed particleboard of cross-bonded plies. OSB is a substitute for plywood used in buildings.


OTC Paper


One-time Carbonizing – Carbon paper that produces one copy only as in case of receipts.




Old telephone directories.


Out Turn Sheet


A sheet of paper that serves as a reference for the mill or client.


Outdoor Poster Board


A strong paperboard that can resist weather conditions and is waterproof. It is primarily used for outdoor displays and posters.




Paper that has been trimmed improperly causing its corners to be more or less than 90 degrees, which leads to difficulties in the printing process and results in misregister of the printed piece.




A lower quality paper used on the bottom and top sides of a ream to protect the better quality paper inside.




Material that must be removed from paper before the paper is recycled or repulped.


Oven Dry


Weight of a paper specimen when dried to constant weight in an oven at the temperature of 105 +/-2oC.


Overhang Cover


A cover of a book that extends over the trimmed signatures it contains.




Printing done on an area that has already been printed.




Quantity of sheets printed over the ordered number of copies.




Paper manufactured wider than the final size to permit trimming to the desired size.


Oxygen Bleaching


A method of reducing the lignin content of pulp by using oxygen gas in an alkaline environment. The pulp is subsequently bleached in 4 to 5 stages.


Ozone Bleaching


A method of reducing the lignin content of pulp by using ozone. Ozone allows bleaching the pulp to a high brightness without the use of chlorine chemicals.





A solid fiberboard or corrugated sheet used for extra protection or for separating articles when packed for shipment.


Page Makeup


The assemblage of all the necessary elements required to complete a page.


Pages Per Inch (PPI)


Number of papers sheets in a inch-thick stack of paper. This term used frequently in book production.




A platform used to facilitate the movement of paper in storage or transit, which can be moved by a lift truck. Pallets are made up of wood, paperboard, or plastic.




Films and other photographic materials those are sensitive to all colors.




A panel is a ‘face’ or ‘side’ of a box.




A web of cellulose fibers, bound together by interweaving and by the use of bonding agents. Paper is used for writing, printing, wrapping, packaging, decorating, wiping etc.


Paper Foil


A paper laminated with metal foil.


Paper Grade


Papers manufactured to fit within a group of papers. Paper is classified into different grades according to the end use, the pulp type, and the treatment of the paper. Each grade of paper uses essentially the same type of fiber, colors, additives etc.


Paper Merchant


A company, which purchases paper from a paper mill for resale to end-users. Merchants usually warehouse the products and then sell it to end-users.


Paper Micrometer


An instrument used for measuring the thickness of paper.


Paper Stock


A slurry of pulp fibers, water, additives, chemicals, and dyes that is pumped onto the papermaking machine to form paper.




A generic term that refers to high-grammage and high-caliper papers. It is intended to be a rigid, durable form of paper, often used in packaging. Some examples include cereal boxes, shoe boxes, folding cartons, setup boxes for jewelry, milk and juice cartons, etc.




A high-grade soft paper used greeting cards and stationery.




An ancient writing material made from the stem of the papyrus plant. The word ‘paper’ is derived from papyrus.




A type of paper that resembles animal skin. It is used for documents, such as awards, that require writing by hand. Parchment paper has a high resistance to the penetration of grease.




A method of treating a paper sheet with sulphuric acid to make it greaseproof


Parent Roll


A roll from the paper machine, which is later slit into smaller rolls.


Parent Sheet


A sheet of paper, which is larger than the cut stock of the same paper.


Paris White


A pure form of calcium carbonate.




Airborne impurities present in gaseous emissions such as lime, soot, calcium carbonate etc.


Paste Drier


Compounds used for enhancing drying of printing inks.


Paste Ink


An ink with a high level of viscosity.




A general term for cardboard formed by pasting layers of pulp board together.




A unit that pastes sheets of paper to produce pasted paper grades.


Patent Coated


Paperboard lined on one or both sides with white or colored fibers to improve the surface. Such board is manufactured on a multi-cylinder machine.


Pattern Carbon


Carbon paper that has its coating applied in a special way. Pattern coating is applied by a process similar to printing than coating.


Pattern Paper


A type of high-strength paper used by designers and tailors for making patterns.




Pebbling is a process, which imparts a grainy surface to finished paper. Pebbling is done after when the paper has been manufactured.




Peeling or scuffing is the surface scaling on the sheet of paper.


Perfect Binding


A binding method used to put together a large number of pages into a book form by a flexible adhesive. For example, most phone books are perfect bound.


Perfecting Press


Perfecting press or a perfector is a printing press that prints on the both sides a sheet of paper in a single pass.




A process done during or after printing to punch small holes in the paper.




Permanence refers to paper's ability to maintain physical properties with time, such as brightness, strength, color, and folding endurance. Prolonged exposure to humidity, light, and adverse temperatures affect the permanence of paper.


Permanent Paper


A paper that can resist large chemical and physical changes over time. This type of paper is made from bleached chemical pulps and is generally acid-free, neutral, or alkaline sized. It may contain calcium carbonate as a filler.




The ability of paper to allow passage of a gas, liquid or vapor through it.


Pernicious Contraries


Foreign material in waste paper that is difficult to detect and which might cause damage to the papermaking equipment.


Peroxide Bleaching


A method of bleaching pulp with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) to remove lignin. Peroxide bleaching avoids or reduces the chlorine dioxide demand.




A measure of acidity, neutrality, or alkalinity of materials such as paper and printing inks. On a scale of 0 to 14, a pH of 7 is neutral. Acids a have pH value below 7 while alkalis a have pH value above 7 (up to 14).


pH Neutral Paper


Paper made from a pulp having a pH of 6.5 to 7.


Phenolic Resin Impregnated Paper


Paper saturated with phenolic resin and used as a binder for cores and sand moulds.


Photographic Paper


A dimensionally stable, chemically-neutral paper with wet-strength properties which is used as a base paper for photographic papers.




The process of composing text matter directly onto a photographic film or other light sensitive material.




A pigment used for manufacturing the cyan ink.




Printing Industry of America.




A person who examines the finished paper for defects in it.




The release of fibers, fines or coating flakes from the paper surface during papermaking or printing. Picking occurs during printing when ink tack is greater than the surface strength of paper.


Picking Resistance


Ability of a paper surface to resist picking by tacky inks during the printing process.




The roll, which lifts the paper web off the wire before the pressing section.




Mineral and inorganic compounds used to coat paper to enhance its surface properties.




Coating of paper with pigments to reduce surface porosity and increase opacity.




The build-up of material from paper on the calendar roll or printing blanket.




Paper Industry Management Association.




A device that controls flow of paper into a machine by engraving pins.




Any small holes through paper or coating extending mainly through the stock; they are of pinpoint size.


Pitch Holes


Pitch holes are caused by pitch plugging the forming fabric at the wet-end of paper machine.





Planned Cut


The volume of wood that can be felled in one year.




A type of board, which has a layer of gypsum in center and the outer layers made up of board. Plasterboard is used in the building industry.


Plastic Comb


A method of binding books where the holes are drilled close to the spine and a comb-like plastic device is inserted to hold the pages together.


Plastic Laminated Paper


Paper are laminated with plastic and used as a cover paper due to its strength.




An additive that adds flexibility, softness, and adhesion to printing inks.




Any material used to make a printed impression for making multiple copies of the image. It is also known as printing press.


Plate Cylinder


The cylinder on a printing press on which the printing plate is fixed.


Plate Finish


An extremely smooth finish achieved by calendaring the paper web.


Plate Glazing


A process of producing a smooth surface on handmade paper sheets by placing them between polished plates of zinc or copper.


Plate Paper


A type of paper used for copperplate printing.


Plate Wiping Paper


A type of paper used as a wiping cloth by engravers.




An equipment of cold iron rolls that imparts a high finish to paper.




A single layer of paper. On multi-cylinder board machines, several plies of paper are pasted together to form the paperboard.


Point (Mil)


A measurement unit equal to one thousandth of an inch (0.001"). Point is used as measurement unit to express the thickness of paper.


Pop Test


The Mullen test, which measures the bursting strength of paper. The term became popular because paper makes a popping sound when tested for bursting strength on Mullen tester.




A structural property of paper, which refers to resistance of paper to air permeation. In printing, high porosity is needed in offset papers to decrease the ink consumption.




Generally uncoated paper, which is used for the production of postcards.


Post-consumer Waste


Recovered paper, which has gone through the consumer lifecycle before being recycled. Examples include computer printouts, tabulating cards, old newspapers, office waste, and milk cartons.


Poster Paper


A type of paper made from mechanical pulp with a high filler content. Poster paper is made weather resistant by sizing. It is used for outdoor advertising.




A series of beaters used in washing and pulp preparation when esparto is used as a raw material.


Preconditioned Paper


Paper manufactured to the specifications of relative humidity.


Pre-consumer Waste


Unprinted offcuts from printers and converters that are then formed into recycled pulp. Examples include envelope clippings and printing press waste.




All printing operations prior to presswork. Pre-press processes include design and layout, typesetting, graphics arts photography, image assembly, and plate making.




Linerboard that is printed and rewound prior to the manufacture of combined board. Linerboard is used to make high quality corrugated boxes.




A set of rolls on a paper machine through which the paper passes to facilitate the removal of water from the web.


Press Proof


Press sheets taken from the production run to check the image, tone, and color before final printing.


Press Run


The quantity of prints for a given job.


Press Section


The section of a paper machine just after the Fourdrinier table. It squeezes the wet paper web under high pressure to remove water.




Pressboard is manufactured on a wet machine to make a uniformly thick and dense paperboard. It should have excellent ply adhesion property.


Presse Pâté


A machine identical in design to the wet-end of a Fourdrinier paper machine. It is used to turn pulp into sheets before its transportation to another mill for making into the final paper.


Pressing Papers


Rag and rope based papers and paperboards used for pressing woolen cloth.




The design impressed onto the web of paper by means of a rubber collar carrying the design.


Pressroom Conditioning


Conditioning of paper in pressrooms to 45% RH in order to have the pressroom RH in equilibrium with the paper RH to minimize curl and associated defects.


Pressure-Sensitive Paper


A type of paper that is coated on one or both sides with adhesive. This adhesive is activated by pressure and forms a bond with the receiving surface. It is used to manufacture labels and tapes.


Pressurized Groundwood Pulp (PGW)


A type of mechanical pulp produced by treating logs with steam before defibration against a grindstone.


Primary Colors


The four primary colors are cyan (blue), magenta (red), yellow, and black.


Primary Fiber (Virgin Fiber)


Papermaking wood fibers that have never been used before to make paper.


Print Gloss


The property of a printed surface to reflect light specularly which impart the surface shiny appearance.


Print Mottle


A type of print defect. A random uneven appearance in the print density, colors, or gloss of a printed sheet of paper.


Print Quality


The degree to which a print's quality approaches the standard or the desired results.




Ease with which paper can be printed to standards with the least amount of wastage.


Printing Ink


Inks containing pigments and/or dyes to produce images.


Printing Paper


Papers specially designed for printing, for example, newsprint and magazine papers The desired qualities are uniform and fast ink trapping and drying as well as the dimensional stability of paper.


Process Flowchart


A layout showing process equipment and materials flow.


Process Printing


Printing from two or more half tones to produce intermediate colors and shades.


Progressive Proofs


Proofs made from the separate plates of a multi-plate-printing project.




A pre-production print to check the accuracy of lay-out, content, tone, and color.




Pulp is a chemically or mechanically produced raw material used in the production paper and paperboard.


Pulp Board


Pulp board is used for index cards. It is also known as printer's board.




A unit for defibrating pulp and paper machine broke. Pulpers have a cylindrical vat in which a rotor separates the fibers and suspends them in water.




A process of transforming wood chips or non-woods into pulp for papermaking.




Wood suitable for producing papermaking pulp. Pulpwood is usually not of sufficient standard for saw-milling.


Puncture Resistance


Resistance of paper or paperboard to perforation.




Pressurized Groundwood Pulp.


Pyroxylin Paper


Paper coated with pyroxylin lacquer to make it water resistant and glossy.




Quality Control


The process of testing representative paper samples to check for consistency or quality.



Rag Content


Rag content in paper describes the amount of cotton fibers relative to the total amount of material used in the pulp.


Rag Paper


Papers with a complete or partial content of cotton fibers. Rag paper is used for ledgers and other products where permanence of records in important.


Rag Pulp


Papermaking pulp made from cotton fibers or cotton linters.


Ragged Left


The term given to right-justified type that is uneven on the left.


Ragged Right


The term given to left-justified type that is uneven on the right.




The principal raw material used in the papermaking process in yesteryears.


Railroad Board


A thick and coated paper used for signs.


Railroad Manila


A type of writing paper containing a substantial amount of mechanical fibers.


Rated Capacity


The amount of paper or paperboard that a given machine has been designed to produce.




Crackling sound produced by shaking a sheet of paper indicating its stiffness and density.


Raw Weight


Weight of raw stock before coating.




A stack of paper containing either 480 or 500 sheets according to paper grade.


Ream Marked


A pile of paper marked by the insertion of small slips of rectangular-shaped paper or "ream markers" at intervals of every 500 or 480 sheets.


Ream Size


Area of paper in a ream, as calculated by width x length x number of sheets in the ream.


Ream Weight


Weight of 500 sheets of paper.


Ream Wrapped


Paper that has been separated into reams and individually packaged for shipment.


Ream Wrappers


A type of coarse paper used to wrap a ream of paper.


Recovered Paper


Used paper and board collected for re-use as raw material in paper and paperboard manufacture.


Recovery Boiler


A unit in Kraft pulping mills where the black liquor is burnt, after concentrating it in an evaporation process. Black liquor burnt in recovery boilers is used to recover inorganic chemicals and to produce energy.


Recovery Rate


Volume of paper recovered as a percentage of volume of paper consumed in an area or a country.




The odd numbered pages of a book.


Recycled Content


Amount of recycled fibers relative to virgin fibers in paper.


Recycled Content Paper


Paper having some percentage of recycled fibers in it.


Recycled Pulp


Pulp produced from deinking recycled newspapers and old magazines.


Red Lake


A pigment used in paste and liquid red inks.




Any substance that softens and reduces the tack of ink.




A roll at the end of the paper machine on which paper is wound. The reel is then cut into rolls of smaller size.


Reel Sample


A sample taken from a reel of paper for testing.




A machine used to grind pulp between two discs to facilitate fibrillation.


Refiner Mechanical Pulp (RMP)


Mechanical pulp produced by passing untreated wood chips between the plates of a refiner.


Refiner Sawdust Pulp


A type of mechanical pulp produced from sawmill dust.




Refining is a process that increases the surface area of cellulose fibers to improve the fiber bonding.







Ability of paper or paperboard to reflect light from its surface. It is a measure of gloss.






Placement of two or more images on a sheet of paper to align them with each other.



Register Paper



A type of paper made for easy removal from sticky surfaces.






A method of strengthening paper with an insert of synthetic fiber or metal.



Reinforcement Pulp



Softwood chemical pulp added for giving paper a greater strength. The reinforcement also improves runnability of paper on the paper machine and printing presses.






Material removed and discarded during the cleaning or screening of pulp and papermaking stock.



Relative Density



Mass of per unit volume of a substance.



Relative Humidity



The percentage of moisture in the air relative to the moisture it can hold without saturation.



Release Paper



Backing paper for self-adhesives. Release paper is used to prevent the sticking of glue to other surfaces.



Renewable Resource



A naturally occurring raw material or form of energy with the capacity to replenish itself through the ecological cycles.



Reproduction Paper



A one-side coated paper suitable for fine screen and color printing.






Useful material left over or arising during production or use and which is recovered.






Percentage of the amount of filler in the finished paper web relative to what was added into the furnish


Reusable packaging (i.e., plastic corrugated totes and bins).  Often will use the most cost effective materials to create designs suitable for a specific project and application.






An equipment used to slit a large width roll into a smaller width rolls of various sizes to meet specific customer orders.






Thin bars of wood, which support the wire cover of a mould.



Rice Paper



A misnomer used to describe Oriental papers. The name might have been derived from the rice size once used in Japanese papermaking.



Right Side of Paper



The side on which the watermark is read correctly.



Ring Crush Test



A test, which measures the stiffness of paper.



Roll Coating



A process in which the coating is applied by a roll. A reverse roll contacting the freshly coated surface subsequently smoothens the coating.



Roofing Paper



A type of paperboard impregnated with tar, bitumen, and/ or natural asphalt.






A byproduct of turpentine distillation from the gum of resinous woods. It is used for internal sizing for paper to make it water resistant.



Rosin Size



A soap solution of rosin and caustic soda. It is added to paper or paperboard to make them water resistant.



Rotary Cutter



The machine that converts paper rolls into untrimmed sheets.



Rotogravure Paper



A highly smooth and uncoated groundwood paper used in rotogravure printing of magazines and catalogues.



Rotogravure Printing



A printing process where the images are engraved in the form of cells on the surface of a metal cylinder.



Rough Paper



A textured paper surface obtained by placing the wet paper sheets against textured blankets.



Rough Shake



A sheet of paper in which the fibers are randomly distributed, as in handmade papers.



Round Cornering



Rounding of corners of paper forms and books by a machine.



Rub Proof



A state of printed ink under the maximum dryness. In this state the ink does not smudge.






A paper property necessary for a trouble-free run through a paper machine or printing press.



Running Head



A title at the top of a page that appears on all pages or chapter of a book.





Sack Paper


Kraft paper with high strength properties, used to make paper sacks.


Saddle Stitch


A method of binding booklets or other printed materials by stapling the pages on the folded spine.


Safety Paper


A paper that shows sign of erasure so that it cannot be altered or tampered with. Used mainly for bank checks and other legal documents such as bonds etc.




A wild shrub in Philippines, which is similar to mulberry. It is used in papermaking as a fibrous raw material.


Sample Room


A location where samples of all grades produced or distributed are both for reference.




A technique for obtaining representative samples of paper or pulp.




Sales Association of the Paper Industry




Outer layers of a stem composed of living cells for carrying water up the tree.


Satin Finish


A smooth, embossed, and satin-like glossy paper.




Savealls recover fibers from waste water fro reuse in papermaking.




Saturated Base Kraft




Solid Bleached Sulphate Board


SC Fluting


Board made from unbleached semi-chemical pulp and used as a middle layer for corrugated boards


SC Paper


A type of uncoated paper that has been highly calendered to obtain a smoother surface and higher gloss. Supercalendered paper is used for magazines, catalogues, and direct marketing materials.




Foreign material that is deposited on the paper web after its formation.


Schopper's Tester


An instrument for measuring the folding endurance of paper.




The process of creating a crease in the paper with mechanical means to allow it to fold more easily. Scoring is needed when heavyweight papers are to be folded across the grain.


Screen Angles


A technique used in 4 color printing which sets halftone screens at various angles to avoid moiré patterns.


Screen Ruling


Number of lines or dots per inch on a halftone screen.




Separation of undesired materials such knots, shives, and bark pieces etc into fractions according to their form and size.




Rejects such as bark pieces, shives, and knots from the screening of pulp.




A device used to clean gases of particles and dissolved substances such as SO2 gas.


Scuff Resistance


Resistance to scuffing of paper or paperboard. It is measured in terms of number of cycles required to produce a specified degree of scuffing on a specified area with an abrasive object moving at a specified speed.




Unwanted ink marks in the non-image area.




Printing in the Non-image areas of print, due to a faulty plate.




The process of allowing paper to adjust to atmospheric conditions.


Secondary Fiber


Any type of fiber obtained from recycled paper and paperboard.


Secondary Pulp


A lower-quality pulp made from recycled paper.




Refers to damaged or imperfect sheets of paper.


Security Paper


A high quality woodfree paper with a genuine multistage water mark to deter counterfeiting and forging.


Self Cover


A cover made out of the same paper stock as the internal sheets.


Semi-alkaline Pulp (SAP)


SAP is a sulphite pulp cooked at slightly alkaline pH (normally, sulphite pulp is cooked at acid pH). It is superior in strength to sulphite pulp and is used mainly in the manufacture of printing papers.


Semi-bleached Pulp


A type of pulp that is bleached to a brightness level somewhere between that of unbleached and fully-bleached pulp.


Semi-chemical Pulp


Pulp produced in a two-stage process. First, the wood is partially digested with chemicals and then the fibers are mechanically separated in a disc refiner. Semi-chemical pulp is used in papers which require fiber stiffness such as papers used in packaging applications.




Transferring or smearing of ink from freshly-printed sheets of paper to another surface.



The actual white color of a paper, with general differentiations of blue-white, balanced white and warm white.



To decrease the dot size of the halftone, this in turn, decreases the color strength.




For surfaces with low gloss, the gloss measurement is done at 85 o. The result is usually reported as 'Sheen'.




A rectangular piece of paper or board.


Sheet Roll


A roll of paper intended to be trimmed into sheets.




The ratio of surface area to the weight of a paper or a paperboard.




A converting machine that cuts the paper web into sheets.


Sheet-Fed Offset Printing


Offset printing where individual pieces of paper are fed into the press.




The operation of cutting paper rolls into individual sheets.




The printing of two images on two sides of a sheet of paper by turning the sheet over after the first side is printed by using the same gripper and side guides.


Shipping Roll


A finished roll that is slit and ready to shipping to a customer.




Tiny bundles of undercooked fibers in stock that have not been separated completely during pulping. Commonly found in papers from mechanical pulps.


Short Fiber


Applies to paper or pulp containing a high proportion of short wood fibers usually from hardwood trees.


Short Fiber Pulp


Pulp produced from hardwoods such as birch and eucalyptus.


Short Grain Paper


Paper in which the machine direction is the shortest sheet dimension.


Short Ink


Ink that is smooth and creamy but does not flow freely.


Short Run Books


A book project less than 10,000 is a short run. Ultra short book runs are less than 1000.


Show Through


A problem in printing when the printed matter on one side of a sheet can be seen from the other side. This happens due to inadequate opacity of paper.




Decrease in the dimensions of a sheet of paper.


Side Guide


The guides on the sides of a sheet-fed press that position the sheet sideways.


Side Roll


A paper mill term for a roll of paper when the paper ordered does not utilize the full width of the paper machine.


Side Run


A roll differing in width from the rest of the rolls made at time on a slitter.


Side Stitch


To staple sheets on the side closest to the spine.


Sign Board


A type of boxboard made on a cylinder machine, which has been vat-lined with white fibers.




A section of a book obtained by folding a single sheet of printed paper in 8, 12, 16, or 32 pages.


Silhouette Halftone


Halftones from which the screen around any part of the image has been removed.


Silicone Treated Paper


A type of high-strength, glazed-finished paper treated on one side with silicones to produce release qualities. It is used as a backing material for pressure sensitive papers.




Refers to the chemical byproducts of the wood-pulping process and other chemicals derived from wood.


Single Ply


A term applied to paper or paperboard made on a single vat cylinder machine.


Single-face Corrugated Board


Corrugated fiberboard made of two layers, one of fluted paper and another of facing.




A substance, which reduces the rate at which paper absorbs water or ink. It is added to the pulp or applied to the surface of the paper when the paper is dry. Examples include rosin, glue, gelatin, starch, modified cellulose, etc.


Size or Sizing


The process by which a sizing chemical is added to paper to provide it the resistance against absorption of water.


Size Press


A section of the paper machine, located between two drier sections, where sizing agents are added.


Size Tub


A container that holds the sizing chemicals during the tub sizing process.




A wooden, reusable platform on which paper is stored or shipped.


Slack Edges


Edges of a paper web with a caliper (thickness) less than the center of the paper sheet.


Slack Sized


Paper that is only slightly sized.




An opening in a paper machine headbox through which pulp is poured onto the Fourdrinier wire.




A lump of bacteria that can get imbedded in the paper web at the wet-end of the paper machine.


Slime Hole or Spots


A hole in paper with brownish translucent material around the edges. It is caused by micro-organism present in the stock system. Although the slime is sterilized during the drying process, it may leave spots in the paper.


Slipped Roll


Unevenly wound rolls are known as slipped rolls.




A sharp circular blade on rewinders that cuts paper rolls in the machine direction into smaller width rolls




A cut made in fiberboard sheets, usually to form flaps to facilitate folding.




Waste created during the biological process in effluent treatment.


Sludge Handling


The process of dewatering and compaction of sludge separated from the treated effluent.




A watery suspension of fibers, fillers, coating pigments, and other solid material used in papermaking, or coating.





A process of dispersion of fibrous raw materials in water by agitation.


Smoothing Press


Press rolls used to smoothen the paper web before it reaches the driers.




A property of paper that describes the flatness and evenness of a sheet's surface. Smoothness is achieved by calendering or supercalendering. A higher calendering might give reduced brightness and poor opacity. Smoother paper gives a better print reproduction.


Smudge Factor


Susceptibility of an image to abrasion or rubbing.


Soda Pulping


A pulping process in which the wood chips are given alkaline treatment with to produce pulp by digesting the fibers under pressure with a solution of caustic soda (NaOH).


Soda Pulp


A type of chemical pulp in which wood chips are digested in a hot alkaline solution of caustic soda (NaOH).


Soft Fold


A method of preparing large sheets of paper for packing.


Soft Mixed Paper


Refers to magazines and newspapers or papers with shorter fibers. Paperboard packaging may also be present in soft mixed papers.


Soft Roll


A badly or improperly wound roll.


Soft Spot


A spot along the length of a paper roll, which is soft, compared to the adjacent area on the roll.




Coniferous trees such as pine, hemlock, and spruce, which have longer fibers than hardwood.


Solid Bleached Sulfate Board (SBS)


Paperboard made from fully bleached virgin Kraft pulp. SBS is used for packaging dry and moist food products, cigarette, and luxury goods etc.


Solid Board


A type of paperboard that is made with the same material throughout its structure.


Solid Chipboard


A type of board made on a cylinder machine entirely from recycled paper with no liner or coating.


Solid Fiberboard


Board with a gsm of over 600 with an outer ply of Kraft pulp. It is used for packaging goods.


Solid-lined Manila Board


A type of manila-colored paperboard made from wood pulp or recycled paper on a cylinder machine. Sometimes a combination of virgin pulp and recycled paper is also used.


Sorted Office Paper


A mix of papers collected for recycling. It can includes writing and copy papers, computer paper, notepads, advertising booklets, letterhead and envelopes.


Specialty Pulp


A grade of chemical pulp used for purposes other than ordinary papermaking, for example in textile production.


Specialty Paper


Coated and uncoated paper produced to meet the unique needs of customers with diverse and specialized usage. Specialty paper examples include sanitary papers, labels, sack papers, wrapping papers, metallized base paper, coated bag paper, etc.


Specific Volume, Bulk


Reciprocal of paper density, also known as specific volume.




Someone suggests the grade of paper or board to be selected for a particular use.




A small defect due to presence of foreign substance in the paper.




An instrument that measures the relative intensity of color or difference in color.


Spent Liquor


Used cooking liquor separated from the pulp after the pulping process. It contains lignin and other substances extracted from the wood.




The backbone of a book.


Spinning Papers


Paper suitable for being spun into yarn or string. This type of papers have a high tensile strength in the machine direction.


Spiral Binding


A binding whereby a wire or plastic is spiraled through holes punched along the binding side.




A joint made in a web of paper with glue or adhesive tape when the web breaks during the winding or rewinding operation.


Splice Tag


A tag or marker indicating the location of a splice.


Split Coating


Process of simultaneously coating one side of a sheet with two different colors.




A continuous roll of paper or cardboard rolled around a mandrel.




A film image that is larger than the original image to accommodate ink trapping. Reference trapping


Square Sheet


A sheet that has equal strength and tear resistance both the directions – machine and cross.




The quality of paper to maintain its original size when subjected to atmospheric changes.




The matter left over after extracting sugar from sugarcane.




A white, odorless carbohydrate obtained from corn, tapioca, and potatoes that is used as a surface or internal additive to provide strength.


Starch Coated


Coated papers in which starch is used as an adhesive for the pigment.


Starred Rolls


Rolls that have damaged ends due to mishandling.


Static Electricity


The electrical charge which sometimes collect on paper, which has been improperly dried or has sustained excessive pressure in calendering.


Static Neutralizer


A device on printing presses that minimizes the static build up on paper as it passes through the press.


Steam Calendering or Finishing


A method of treating paper with steam before calendering to improve its density and surface smoothness.


Stencil-duplicating Paper


An oil-absorbent paper, which has a toothy surface.




Water insoluble contaminants in recycled fiber such as adhesives, binders, thermal plastics, etc.




Resistance of paper to bending. Stiffness is a critical property for paper during the printing, converting, and filling processes.




Stippling is a converting process that applies an embossed surface to the paper.




Stock is a suspension of water, fibers, and papermaking chemicals.


Stock Pump


A centrifugal pump used to pump water and fiber suspensions.


Stocking Merchant


A paper distributor or merchant who hold enough paper in warehouse to fill orders in the market.


Stone Groundwood Pulp


A mechanical pulping process in which wood logs are ground against a rotating grindstone. Stone groundwood pulps have low strength properties but good optical properties


Straw Pulp


Pulp made from the straws as a raw material (e.g. rice straw).




A type of board made from partially cooked straw or bagasse or a combination of these.




The ability of paper or board to withstand mechanical stresses. Strength of paper is measured by tests for tensile, burst, tear, and folding strength.




Elongation of paper under tension. The elongation is expressed as a percentage of the original length when stressed at a given load.


Strike Through


The penetration of ink through paper.




Positioning of positives and negatives on the flat before proceeding to platemaking.


Structural Box


A self-supporting box.


Stub Roll


Refers to a small diameter roll. Also used for a roll with only a small amount of paper remaining it.


Stuck Web


A condition where two layers of paper stick together because of a tacky material coming in between the layers.




Paper stock or pulp ready for manufacture into paper.


Stuff Chest


A large supply tank with an agitator in which the stock is stored before getting pumped to the vat or machine.




A flexible bamboo screen used in Japanese papermaking.


Substance Weight


Same as basis weight. It is mainly used with bond and business paper grades. Substance weight is also expressed as "sub”.




Material such as paper or plastic, generally in sheet or web form.


Suction Box


A device on a paper machine that removes water from the paper web using vacuum. Suction boxes are located below the wire at the wet-end.


Suction Couch Roll


A revolving and perforated bronze roll passing over a suction box to extract water from the paper web.


Sulfate Process


An alkaline pulp manufacturing process, which uses caustic soda and sodium sulfite solution to cook wood chips under pressure. The sulphate process is also known as Kraft process.


Sulfate Pulp


An alkaline pulp manufactured by cooking wood chips with caustic soda and sodium sulfite solution at an elevated pressure. The sulphate pulp is also known as Kraft pulp.


Sulfite Pulp


Paper pulp made from wood chips cooked under pressure in a solution of calcium bisulfite and sulfurous acid.


Sulphate Board


A strong linerboard. Also known as Kraft board.


Sulphur Dioxide


A gas formed during the combustion of sulphur-containing fuels such as black liquor and oil.




An auxiliary equipment that gives paper a smooth finish and gloss by passing it through a series of alternate metal and compressed cotton rolls, revolving at a high speed.


Supercalendered Paper


A type of uncoated paper that has been highly calendered to obtain a smooth surface and high gloss than the machine-finished paper. It is used for printed advertising material, catalogues, and magazines.


Surface Bonding


Refers to resistance of surface fibers to separating or picking.


Surface Defect


A visible defect or foreign material on the surface of paper.


Surface Sized


A type of paper that has been sized when the web of paper was partially dry to increase its resistance to ink penetration.


Surface Strength


The ability of the paper surface to resist picking during the printing process. Surface strength can be measured by the wax pick test.


Surface Treatment


Treating the surface of paper or board with sizing chemicals, coating, or color.


Suspended Solids (SS)


Substances suspended in water consisting of bark, fibers, fillers, coating color, and residues from paper mill that can be separated with a filter.


Synthetic Papers


Papers made from synthetic fibers such as polyamide and polyester etc. The fibers are held together by binders.






Trimmed four sides. A paper sheet that has been trimmed on all its four sides.


Tablet Papers


A type of paper used to manufacture the tablets designed for writing.


Tabloid Fold


First parallel fold.




The adhesive quality of inks.




Through-Air Drying.


Tag Stock


A dense, strong paper stock. It is used for items such as baggage and store item tags.




Mineral used in papermaking as a filler and coating pigment.


Tall Oil


A by-product obtained during the evaporation of sulfate black liquor.




Technical Association of the Pulp and Paper Industry.


Tare Weight


The weight of the container and/or wrapper deducted from the gross weight to determine the net weight of the contents.




Total Chlorine Free


Tear Factor


Tear factor is calculated as tear strength per unit grammage (g/m2).


Tear Strength


The resistance of a sheet of paper to tearing, as measured by the force required to tear a strip under standard conditions. Tear strength is an important performance factor to a printer or converter.


Tearing Resistance


Force needed to tear a paper specimen under specified conditions.


Tearing Wire


A thick wire fixed to a mould producing a thinner line of paper to facilitate tearing into two sheets.


Technical Papers


A grade of medium-grammage papers used for industrial and advertising purpose.


Telescoped Roll


A misaligned paper roll with one end concave, the other convex caused by the slippage of inner layers of the web.


Tensile Strength


The force, parallel with the plane of the paper, required to produce failure in a specimen under specified conditions of loading. Tensile strength is measured in both the grain and cross-grain directions.


Test Linerboard


Used as an outer layer of a corrugated board. It is made partly from chemical pulp and partly from the recycled paper pulp.


Text Paper


A high-quality printing paper available in multiple colors and finishes. It is used for annual reports, announcements, booklets, etc.


The A Series


The A series is a general term for printed matter including stationary and publications.


Thermal Paper


A type of paper with a heat-sensitive coating on which an image can be produced by the application of heat. It is used on telefax machines, thermoplotters, and thermoprinters.




A printing process in which a slow drying ink is applied to paper and while the ink is still wet, it is lightly dusted with a resinous powder. The paper then passes through a heat chamber where the powder melts and fuses with the ink to produce a raised surface.


Thermomechanical Pulp (TMP)


A grade of mechanical pulp made by presteaming wood chips, producing a higher yield and stronger pulp than the regular groundwood.



Thickness (Caliper)


The distance between the two surfaces of a sheet of paper. It is measured in microns, or thousandths of a millimeters. Thickness of paper is affected by its moisture content. Thickness determines the stiffness of paper, an important quality for its smooth running on high speed copiers and printers.


Thin Paper


A paper having a grammage of 40 g/m2 or less



Through Drier


A slower drier that dries the ink throughout without forming a hard crust.


Through-Air Drying


A method of drying the tissue paper running over a perforated drum through which the hot air is blown.


Ticket Bristol


A type of bristol used for ticket purposes. It is usually made from mechanical pulp and/or recycled paper pulp.




A very light or delicate variation of a color.


Tissue Overlay


A thin and translucent paper placed over art work for protection.


Tissue Paper


A general term for a variety of high-quality, creped hygiene papers including towels, wipes, toilet, facial, napkin, and special sanitary papers. Tissue papers should be soft, strong when wet, and lint-free.


Titanium Dioxide


A mineral added to papermaking furnish and/or coating of paper to improve the opacity and brightness of the paper.




The permissible degree of variation from a pre-set standard.




A rough-finish paper, which absorbs the inks readily.


Top Side


The felt side of a sheet of paper. The top side of a sheet is the side not against the wire during manufacture and is smoother than the wire side.


Top Sizing


Surface or tub sizing of paper, which has already been internally sized.




Topliner is the outermost layer of paperboard.


Total Chlorine Free


Pulp bleached without the use of chlorine compounds such as chlorine gas or chlorine dioxide.


Total Reduced Sulphur (TRS)


Unpleasant smelling sulphur compounds released into the air from Kraft mills.


Tough Check


A high-strength bristol made on a cylinder machine.


Translucent Papers


Papers that allow the information to be seen through them.


Transparent Ink


A type of ink that permits the previous printing to be seen through. Process inks are transparent.


Trapping Of Inks


A printing ink property that makes it possible to superimpose one color on another.




The maximum width of paper that can be made on a particular paper machine excluding the edges that are normally cut off.


Trim Marks


Marks placed on the sheet to indicate where to trim the page.




A machine equipped with a guillotine blade that can cut paper to the desired size.




Paper or paperboard left over from sheet cutting operations.




A paper that has been surface-treated or impregnated with a sizing material in a tub-size press.


Twin-Wire Machine


Paper or paperboard machine on which the web is formed and partially dewatered between two vertical wires. This assures a lower two-sidedness resulting in a higher quality printing on both sides.




The difference in feel, appearance, and printability between the two (top and wire) sides of paper.



Unbleached Pulp


The pulp, which has been cooked but has not been bleached.




Papers that have not gone through the calendaring process.


Uncoated Fine Paper


A type of uncoated printing and writing paper produced from bleached chemical pulp with little or no mechanical pulp.


Uncoated Groundwood


A type of paper that is used as printing papers for catalogues, directories, periodicals, advertising circulars, etc.


Uncoated Paper


The paper, which has not been coated with any of the various coating substances.


Uncoated Weight


Weight of the base stock before the coating pigment is added.


Uncoated Woodfree Paper


A type of uncoated printing and writing paper made from bleached chemical pulp. It is used for photocopying, stationery, and printing, etc.



Unglazed (UG)


Uncalendered paper




Unryu means 'cloud dragon' paper in Japanese.




The paper, which has not been, sized either internally or on the surface.




A term given to books bound on the longer dimension.


Utilization Rate


The amount of recycled paper used to make a certain amount of paper.


UV Coating


A glossy coating applied to the printed paper surface and dried on press with ultraviolet (UV) light. UV coating is used for printing the covers of paperback novels.


UV Ink


A type of ink that dries quickly on exposure to ultraviolet (UV) light while still on press. UV drying improves turnaround time because it eliminates waiting time for the first side to dry before printing the second side.






A primary component of the ink vehicle.


Varnish Label Paper


Label papers, which have been varnished (or lacquered) after printing. Varnishing aims to protect the printing and increases the paper's gloss, as well as improves its barrier properties.


Vegetable Parchment


Vegetable parchment, also called as parchment paper, is a highly pure packaging material that is impermeable to water and grease. It is made by passing paper through a bath of sulphuric acid. It has a high dry and wet strength and it is used for packaging frozen, moist or greasy food products.




The liquid part of an ink that gives it flow enabling it to be applied to a surface.


Vellum Finish


A slightly rough or "toothy" surface on a sheet of paper, which facilitates a faster absorbance of printing ink.


Velour Paper


A type of paper that is coated with an adhesive and then flock-dusted.




A photographic print made from a negative.


Virgin Fiber


Wood fibers that have been derived from trees and have not been previously processed into paper. Also known as primary fiber.




An instrument used to measure the viscosity of fluids.


Viscose Pulp


A type of dissolving pulp for manufacturing viscose.




The resistance of a fluid to flow.


Vulcanized Fiber


Cotton-fibered paper treated with zinc chloride. Vulcanized fibers are used in the electrical industry.





A single or multi-ply, fiber sheet made from chemical pulp. It is used in thermal and acoustical and in packaging applications.


Wall Base Paper


A collective term for papers intended for wallpaper production.


Washer Room


A pulp mill department where the pulp is washed free of cooking chemicals.




Washi refers to any Japanese paper, traditionally made or otherwise.


Washing Deinking


A deinking method in which solid particles are separated on the basis of their size.




The process of cleaning ink from all of the printing elements of a press such as rollers, plate, ink fountain etc.


Waste Paper


Waste paper refers to recycled paper such as newspapers, magazines, and office papers.


Wastepaper Stock


Pulp derived from recycled paper.


Water Color Paper


A type of drawing paper with a rough or structured surface.


Water Finish


Water finish resembles the machine glazed finish. It is obtained by moistening the web with a spray of water as it passes through the calender stacks.


Water Resistance


The resistance of paper to absorption of water. Water resistance can be achieved by internal sizing with rosin.


Water Vapor Permeability


The rate at which the water vapor passes through a sheet of paper.




A type of paper with little or no sizing which make it the most absorbent paper.


Waterlined Paper


A type of writing paper in which watermark lines run through the sheet.




Watermarks are designs or patterns impressed into paper by the raised pattern of the dandy roll on the paper machine. It appears in the finished sheet either as a lighter or darker area than the rest of the paper. Watermarks can be used to identify a company, reinforce a brand or can be added to paper as a security measure.


Wavy Edge


The waviness of a paper skid's periphery. The wavy edges are caused by a increase in moisture content of the edges as compared to the center of the sheet.


Wax Paper


Sulphite or sulphate papers impregnated or surface coated with wax after paper is made.


Wax Pick


A test to determine the surface strength of paper or board. Wax pick test uses a series of hard resins and which are pulled from the surface of the test paper. The highest numbered wax in the series, which does not disturb the surface of the paper, indicates the numerical rating of pick resistance. This test measures the surface bonding strength of paper.


Waxed Paper


A type of woodfree paper that has been impregnated with paraffin or wax. Waxed paper is used for packaging bread and sweets etc.




Coating of paper or paperboard with paraffin or wax.




The continuous sheet of paper made on a paper machine.


Web Break


A tear in paper web during its manufacture on a paper machine, conversion a converting machine or during its run on a printing press.


Web Cleaner


A vacuum cleaner placed ahead of the first printing unit to remove foreign particles from the paper web.


Web Glazing


Imparting gloss to the paper surface by calendering it between a set of calender rolls.


Web Offset Paper


A type of paper that is printed in a continuous manner from a roll. It is strong enough to withstand the rigors of printing at high speeds.


Web Press


A printing press that prints rolls of paper as a continuous piece as opposed to sheets of paper.


Web Tension


The amount of pull applied in the direction of the travel of a paper web by the action of a web-fed press.


Wedding Paper


A type of paper, which is soft and thick and holds up well under embossing.




A type of finer quality, vellum-finished printing papers.


Weft Wire


Light exposure that affects chemical.


Wet End


First section of the paper machine up to the dryers. At the wet end, the stock enters the machine and the bulk of the water is removed by dewatering, suction, and pressing.


Wet Machine


A type of paper machine consisting of a wire-covered cylinders rotating in a vat of pulp stock.


Wet Rub


Resistance of wet paper to scuffing and linting.



Wet Strength


Mechanical strength of paper when re-wetted with water.


Wet Strength Papers


Ordinary papers lose most of their dry strength properties when saturated with water. Wet strength papers resist disintegration and rupture when saturated with water. Wet strength papers should retain 15% or more of their dry-tensile strength.


Wet Tensile Strength


Ability of a wet paper sheet to resist tension applied in its plane.


White Lined Chipboard (WLC)


A type of board made from recovered fibers. It is often mineral coated and used for consumer cartons for dry food and non-food products.


White Liquor


The cooking liquor used in production of sulphate pulp. It contains sodium hydroxide and sodium sulphide.


White Office Paper


A mix of paper collected for recycling. It includes computer printout, white copy paper and writing paper, and white envelopes without plastic windows.


White Paper


A type of paper whose natural color has been corrected by the addition of blue, yellow, and red dyes. Sometimes the term refers to printing and writing papers.


White Water


The milky water extracted from the furnish at the wet-end of the paper machine. It is reused in the paper making process because of its richness in fines and chemicals.


White Water System


A flow system for white water, which includes pipes, storage tanks, cleaning equipment, water from forming section and return feed.




An aesthetic quality, defining the look of the paper.




The tendency of printing ink, to feather or move on the surface of a paper sheet or through to the other side of the paper.




A machine for cutting the paper web in the machine direction into narrower rolls. Winders are also known as slitter-winder.




A flat belt of metal or plastic mesh used to dewater the paper furnish on the wet-end of paper machine. Also known as forming fabric.


Wire Holes


Clean-edged holes without any contamination or foreign material. Caused by forming fabric or wire.


Wire Mark


The impression left on the paper by the forming fabric on the paper machine.


Wire Side


The side of paper, which is formed in contact with the wire on the Fourdrinier paper machine. Wire side is not as smooth as the felt or top side of the paper.


With the Grain


A direction parallel to the grain of paper.


Wood Bank


An arrangement in which companies exchange wood raw material to minimize transport cost.


Wood Chip


The coin-sized piece of wood, which is cooked in the digester.


Wood Extractives


Metabolic substance in wood that can be removed by solution in hot or cold water, ethers or other solvents that do not react chemically with wood.


Wood Preservative


Products that protect wood from pests.


Wood Procurement


Purchase, harvesting, and transport of wood to the mill for further processing to convert it into paper.


Wood Pulp


Mechanical or chemical pulp made from hardwood or softwood.


Wood Room


The debarking and chipping section of a pulp mill.


Wood Yard


The area in a mill where logs are stored, debarked, and chipped.




A paper containing a certain proportion of mechanical pulp.




Paper made from chemical pulp and free from wood-based impurities, such as lignin, which are present in mechanical pulp.


Woodfree Paper


Paper made from chemical wood pulps. Also referred to as "free sheet”.

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An Inc. 500 company and award winning national distributor of high quality printing, packaging & specialty papers and packaging solutions serving the Fortune 500/1000, commercial printers, catalogers, book and magazine publishers, integrated and independent corrugated converters, folding carton/rigid box manufacturers, tube winders, laminators, paper converters and the foodservice industry, etc. . .




The paper finish obtained by the impressions of a felt dandy roll.


Wove Dandy


A dandy roll covered with a wire cloth to achieve a wove finish.


Wove Paper


A type of paper with a smooth and even surface made on a mould with a fine wire mesh.




Paper or paperboard, which are used to protect a roll form damage.


Writing Paper


A type of uncoated paper that is suitable for writing with inks on both sides. Writing papers are always sized and can be woodfree or woodcontaining.




Xerographic Paper


A generic term for papers suitable for use in the xerographic process.




A part of a tree between the bark and the pith from where the papermaking fiber is obtained.



Yankee Dryer


A steam-heated paper dryer consisting of a large revolving drum. Yankee dryer is a single large dryer at the end of the paper machine. They are used for making thin sheets such as toilet tissue and machine glazed papers.


Yellowing (Reversion)


Discoloration of a sheet of paper due to exposure to light and / or heat. Papers made from mechanical pulp are particularly susceptible to yellowing.




The amount of raw material entering a pulp and papermaking operation to the equivalent product output.



Zero Discharge


Zero discharge means that no effluents are discharged from the pulp and paper mill. Such mills are also known as totally effluent free (TEF).



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